Industry Profile: Owen Sloane

— By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Owen Sloane, Attorney; Chair, Entertainment & Media Group - Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane, ALC

Owen Sloane is a pretty smart cookie.

A partner in Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane in Marina del Rey, California, he is, in fact, one of the most highly respected attorneys in the entertainment industry.

The former Los Angeles office of Berger Kahn re-formed as Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane, ALC in Aug. 2009 with Sloane and Leon Gladstone heading up the entertainment department.

The firm handles a diverse range of complex litigation, insurance, business and corporate, professional liability, aviation, labor and employment, bankruptcy, real estate and trials and appeals.

An expert in copyrights and intellectual properties, Sloane’s clients over 40 years have included top-name entertainers, publishers, record companies, managers, producers, and songwriters.

His client list over the decades is impressive.

The list includes: Elton John, Kenny Rogers, Chris Daughtry, Suzanne Vega, Bonnie Raitt, Jeffrey Osborne. Roseanne Cash, Olivia Newton-John, Fleetwood Mac, the Judds, Tanya Tucker, Reba McEntire, Donna Summer, Joe Cocker, Barry Manilow, Leon Russell, Rickie Lee Jones, Steve Winwood, and Rob Thomas.

Sloane continues to oversee legal matters for the Frank Zappa Estate, and has handled the Harry Warren Estate.

Sloane advises and represents clients dealing with talent contracts as well as recording and production, music publishing, distribution, music licensing, sponsorship, song placement, merchandising, and live event agreements.

He also represents clients on copyright and intellectual property matters, and on varied issues relative to the internet.

Sloane also serves as an expert witness and litigation consultant in disputes involving contracts, copyright, calculations of royalties, recording and publishing, music industry custom and practices. He has testified as an expert witness in over a dozen court cases.

Sloane is an honors graduate from Cornell University (with a B.A. in Government) in 1962, and an honors graduate from Yale Law School in 1965. At Yale, he graduated Order of the Coif, earning a Juris Doctor degree. He was also a member of the Yale Law Review.

He has served on the board of the Los Angeles Chapter of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, and the city of Los Angeles’ Grammy Host Committee.

The music industry is in flux today. A litigious time as well?

Oh yeah. (The industry is) in transition. That’s what the problem is. Nobody knows how it is going to shake out in the long run. So, everybody is scrambling and trying to do the best that they can under the existing circumstances. But things are so much in flux. The old traditional methods are just not the easy way to do it anymore.

Today, aren’t there major artists quietly fighting to regain their recording catalogs?

Yes. I think that a lot of the major artists that are branded are waiting for their contracts to run out. They aren’t going to re-sign (with their labels). They are going to do it themselves. Once they have a branded name, they don’t really need the record company anymore.

Right, like the Eagles don’t really need a label.

I don’t think so. I think that it is just a matter of time until an indie breaks through to sell quantities (of product) large enough to be significant. The relevance of major labels today is more in the pop area where acts do need radio; they do need the machine; and have to spend a lot of money. But a lot of the indie and rock acts don’t really need a label.

You know, the two major strengths that the labels had were: One, they pretty much controlled radio with all of the promotion and marketing people. To get on big radio, an act needed to have a connection with a major label. But today, radio hardly ever breaks acts anymore. Most people find acts through the internet, blogs and that kind of thing.

The second strength was that the major labels controlled physical distribution. It was very difficult to get into stores if you weren’t distributed by a major. Today, music doesn’t really sell at retail anymore. We have Wal-Mart and a few major (retail) people selling records, and they are making direct deals (with artists). So the power base of the majors has been destroyed by the changes in the business. So what are they offering?

Few significant acts have been created by major labels in recent years.

You take the big explosion of Lady Gaga. She did a lot of that (build-up) before she got to Interscope. They helped blow (her career) up. There’s no question about it. But she’s a phenomenon, and it’s a whole different situation with her. But, if she came with demos, and made a deal with a major label, I don’t think she would have made it. In fact, she had deals before.

[Lady Gaga initially signed with Def Jam Recordings at the age of 19; and was dropped after only three months.]

Artists used to be on the hook for 10 albums in signing with a major. What are the majors seeking today?

Usually, three to five albums. Some still hold out for more. It depends on your leverage. If it’s a brand new (act), they want more, obviously. People don’t think of long term careers. So you can sometimes get away with three to five albums. The old days of 10 albums and all that are gone.

Record company contracts are better today in giving artists a higher royalty, but they are worse in the technicalities of royalty calculation. Labels are trying to develop other sources of income by doing different deals—360 degree or whatever—to get other rights. In doing that, the labels risk alienating artists.

Unless labels supply value in other areas in which they are taking money from the 360 degree deal, they are basically slitting their throats. It’s a desperation move. It basically says, “We are going to grab money from whatever other sources that you are making it from. But we aren’t going to add anything to that.”

The theory is, “We’ll break you as a recording artist; therefore everything else is more valuable to you.”

There’s a logic to that, but I think that it is a flawed logic. The fact is, that their business is not in the other areas. I remember years ago, when I was negotiating a deal with Jerry Moss at A&M, I said, “The royalty is very low. It’s hard to get much money out of the records.” He said to me, in all seriousness, “You don’t expect to make money off of the records. You have everything else.” He said, “We make the money off of the records, and we give you your career.”

Berry Gordy Jr. would make that argument at Motown.


With 360 degree-type deals, could major labels run afoul of anti-trust laws? MCA had to divest of its booking agency in the ‘60s.

It depends, I suppose, on what they are doing. If they are just taking cash participation out of other areas, I don’t think that raises the issue. If they are signing those areas exclusively, and they are becoming a full service kind of (company,) I suppose it’s possible. I’m not an anti-trust expert so I can’t really answer that question. But, I think that in an industry that is having trouble, and they are offering a full type service, it may be okay.

At this point, most of them are grabbing. Warner Bros. (Records) has a good merchandising operation, but most of the others don’t have anything. All they are saying is, “Pay us a percentage.”

[In order to acquire a controlling stake in Universal Pictures in 1962, MCA president Lew Wasserman was forced to dissolve MCA's talent agency—which represented most of the entertainment industry's biggest names—by the Department of Justice, as owning both the movie studio and a talent agency would violate anti-trust laws.]

Conflicts of interest have gone on for decades in the music industry.

Yeah, but not at a major label level. When I first started practicing, labels used to like to make publishing and record deals at the same time.

They would cross-collateralize the contracts.

Exactly right. Then, their leverage shifted and labels got out of forcing people to make publishing deals. Now, we are sort of back in the situation where they are not necessarily forcing you to make a deal for other (revenue) areas, but they are requiring you to pay a percentage of the income on the theory that they are generating (future revenue). That they are making it possible for you to become a big arena act, because of what they are doing in the record area.

Labels have come to believe there is not enough money in records.

To me, that’s an admission of the fact that their core business is not a profitable business, and that they can’t figure out how to make it a profitable business. The only way that they are trying to solve their problem is by saying, “Give us participation in everything else.” But, there’s a flaw in that. If your basic core business is not profitable, and you are not diversifying into actually providing services in other areas—that you are just taking money from other areas—that’s a serious admission that you have a serious problem with your core business.

Labels once wouldn’t sign a singer/songwriter unless he signed with their affiliated publisher.

That stopped a while back. The only time they would throw that in was when you said the record deal wasn’t enough. They would say, “We could put you in touch with our publishing people and they might make a deal on the publishing side.” But they never forced the issue.

Why can’t American lawyers get rid of the three-quarter controlled composition clause in recording contacts?

It’s very tough. Again, it’s a question of leverage. That used to be a (negotiation) trick too. They would say, “Well, if you make a deal with our publishing company, we will pay a full rate. Otherwise, you will get a three-quarter rate.”

[The controlled-composition clause permits a record company to lower or put a cap on the number of musical compositions on a physical album for which a label is required to pay a full mechanical royalty.]

The three-quarter rate is still in effect in the U.S. for physical goods.

It depends on the leverage (of the act). Sometimes, the (labels) aren’t sticklers. They have resigned themselves on paying on ten times whatever the stat rate is. Those deals you can make, if you cap at 10 (songs).

The misuse of music has always gone on. Today, people often don’t consider all of the rights in starting new music ventures.

Sometimes people will come to me with a business plan or an idea. I will call attention to certain (legal) things and they will say, “Oh yeah, I thought that was the case. But how much am I going to have to pay?” The biggest misconception is what constitutes “fair use.” People will always think that they can get the use of copyrights for free, because they think that it is a “fair use.” It is a very misunderstood concept. It doesn’t apply to most of the things that people think it applies to.

[Under United States copyright law, one of the rights accorded to the owner of copyright is the right to reproduce or to authorize others to reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords. This right is subject to certain limitations. One of the more important limitations is the doctrine of “fair use.” The doctrine of “fair use,” developed through court decisions over the years, has been codified in section 107 of the copyright law. The distinction between “fair use” and “infringement” may be unclear, and not easily defined. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.]

Music copyright is so much more complicated today.

Well, it is because you have so many potential usages and outlets for music that need to be cleared, that it is a lot more complicated. It is not just radio airplay or a phonograph record (use), and there are different rules that apply for different kinds of usages. If you digitally stream something it is one thing, as opposed to if you download it; and, if it’s permanent versus a temporary download. It is very complicated to clear the rights.

Online music services and others argue that the music industry has made clearing rights too complicated.

Well, it wasn’t us. It was partly the law, and it is also partly the attempt to accommodate different interests. It is all the result of compromise. The people who are the users of music versus the suppliers of music go to Congress and the legislatures in the different countries, and they try to work out some kind of compromise. When you have a compromise like this, it obviously becomes complicated. It’s not just an easy solution, because they try to accommodate a lot of opposing interests. I think that is part of (the legal scenario).

The basic concept is that, "if people use music, they should be paying for it," is there. It is just a question of how much should they pay; how do you calculate it; and what usages—whether there’s a compulsory license or whether you have to negotiate the usages. But those are all the results of compromises.

Also the music industry was very slow to react to the digitalization of music.

Oh yeah, absolutely. They were taken totally by surprise. The Napster thing was a shock to most people.

How should the music industry have handled Napster in 1999? Day one, should labels and publishers have said, “This is great. We want in,”?

Absolutely. I said that from the beginning. When you see that there is a demand among consumers for a service like this, the approach is not to stifle it and try to prevent it, and try to do away with it, because, you know, the consumer is always right. [Napster) had what, 80 million subscribers at one time? If they could have turned that into a $10 a month subscription service, it would have had a $800 million a month business which is $9.6 billion over a year.

That’s a big money pool to participate in.

And, if you are running a company like Napster, you don’t really have to take much out of the pot to run your operation. You are making money from other things. Basically, the royalty participants would have shared in the bulk of (monies). However, the response was, “Let’s stop this.” Instead of saying, “We could build this pool to a point where it could be so significant that we would have a big amount of money to split.”

The funny thing was that the big companies—who had the most to gain from that kind of a subscription service, because they have deep catalogs and would get the lion’s share of the money out of it—they fought it tooth and nail. They should have been the first ones to say, “Hey, if we are participating in a pool where we’ve got a real deep catalog, we are going to get more money than the guy with one hit.”

As well, a $10 a month subscription could have evolved. Look how the cable companies have utilized tier pricing.

Yes, exactly. You could have easily have started that (subscription rate) by trial-and-error and testing the market instead. But the attitude was to stop (Napster) in its infancy. Kill it, as opposed to saying, “Let’s find a way that we can make this even more profitable. We see that there is a demand and consumers want it. So let’s figure out a way to meet consumer demand.”

At the same time as the emergence of Napster, the labels decided to stop selling singles. The argument was that singles were cannibalizing album sales.

It was always viewed (previously) that the single was for the promotion for the album. That you always went with the single, released it, had people acquaint themselves with the music, and they bought the album. The problem was, that (labels) started to put only two or three good songs on an album. Just filler crap, and they kept pushing (albums) to 13 and 14 songs. None of the tracks, other than two or three, were really worthwhile. It wasn’t like they were putting out a Pink Floyd or a Stones’ album, or that the bulk of the songs were great. Most of them were throwaways. Who wanted to pay $16.98, or whatever for an album that only had two or three good songs on it? So, (fans) would buy them (as singles) or steal them individually (online).

Today, we are back to that track-by-track world.

We’re back to a singles world.

And the music industry has gone from making dollars to dimes.

The biggest problem, in my view, is how do you adapt to a new economic model, which allows you to make a profit off of selling less? Either by making it up in volume, or by cutting your costs—which are substantial—so that you are making a profit on individual sales. That’s the key. These record companies are so top heavy in terms of infrastructure and (are set) in the old ways of doing things. The business used to be geared to selling a limited quantity of a very highly marked-up product, which was the CD. Today, those sales are declining substantially. So, they have to figure out a way to run a lean, mean machine, where they can make a profit from selling items for a dollar or $1.29.

You think major labels are still too top heavy?

Oh, yes. Well, I think that the salaries of some of these people alone… If they cut those people out, that would immediately go to the button line. They have trimmed down their staff of people, and they outsource stuff, but they are still too top heavy.

The publishing side of the music business has traditionally run lean.

Well, they were used to making pennies. Then, when the (mechanical royalty) rate went up, and they were all in good shape because, as you said, they ran a lean machine. It was a nickel and dime business.

[The U.S. royalty rate remained the same from 1909 to 1976 when Congress passed the Copyright Act of 1976, which provided for the establishment of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal. It determined that mechanical rates should be raised to 2.75 cents/0.5 cents per minute, which took effect on Jan. 1, 1978. Another royalty increase came a decade later at 5.25 cents/1 cent per minute. A mechanical royalty rate of 9.10 cents per song (per unit sold) came into effect Jan. 1, 2006.]

What is your role as an expert witness in court cases?

Most of the time it is in the context of a law suit. An expert witness is supposed to testify to what the custom, the practice, and usage are in the context of the dispute. So the expert educates the jury in an area that is specialized and that they have no expertise in. It is not interpreting a particular contract or opinioning on the merits of the case.

You aren’t a neutral party though.

I’m adverse in the sense that, obviously, if I take something on, and I believe in it and I express my honest opinion to it, it is probably going to be contrary to the interests of the other side.

Singer/songwriter Smokey Robinson and Claudette Robinson divorced in 1986 following 27 years of marriage, and you were later called as an expert witness for Claudette in determining a settlement.

In the Claudette Robinson case, it was consulting with the lawyers, and the accountant as to how the business works so that they could isolate sources of income on the publishing side and explore those to see that she was being paid properly under a previous divorce decree.

Most of the time, (being an expert witness) is partly consulting, but it is also partly testifying to the context and the custom and practice in the industry.

You were an expert for The Rio Hotel in Las Vegas in its case against Rod Stewart for a cancelled show in 2000.

My testimony was based upon the significance of what a live performance would be. One of the issues was that he didn’t play New Year’s Eve in the Millennium, which is what he was originally booked to do. He didn’t play New Year’s Eve, and he wanted to pick some other dates when he was on tour in April or May (2000). One of the issues in that case was about the shows having the same significance. New Year’s Eve in Las Vegas is a lot more significant of an engagement, and is worth more than April or some other time. And, there were contract interpretation issues too, as to whether there was a right to re-schedule or not to re-schedule. (Stewart’s lawyers) were claiming that he had a right to schedule or that (the hotel) had an obligation to re-schedule, if he was ill.

[In 2005, Rod the Mod was ordered to pay $2 million to The Rio Hotel in Las Vegas for a last minute cancellation in Dec. 2000. At the time, Stewart maintained he was unable to keep the commitment because he was recovering from throat surgery after two tumors were removed from the his thyroid.

Harrah's Entertainment, which owns The Rio, was seeking the return of his fee plus interest and attorney's fees. Stewart's lawyer, Louis "Skip" Miller, said that his client had offered to do two performances in order to make up for the show he missed. According to Stephen Morris, an attorney for The Rio, the casino was interested in discussing the possibility of more Stewart performances, but first wanted the fee returned. When Stewart refused, the entertainment company pushed ahead with its suit.]

You continue to represent the Frank Zappa Estate after his passing in 1993. You started representing Frank Zappa in the ‘70s.

Yeah, it was in the ‘70s when I began representing him.

What was your impression of Frank?

He was a genius; and he was a very intimidating—not that he meant to be—but he was such a different thinker. When you talked with him, you always felt like he was on a different planet, that he was way ahead of everybody else. So, it was very interesting dealing with him.

But he was also a very regular guy.

Everybody thought he was into drugs or was really weird but that wasn’t the case. He did a great job with his kids. Between him and Gail, they turned out some really good kids, and they had a nice family life. He was much more normal than people would have thought, but he was just on a different planet when it came to the industry.

[Gail Zappa is the executor of The Zappa Family Trust. Her and Frank were married in 1967 and had four children, Moon, Dweezil, Ahmet, and Diva. Since Frank’s death in 1993, Gail has overseen the release of his recordings under the Zappa Family Trust. The Trust holds title and copyright to Frank Zappa's musical products, as well as his commercial image.]

Was Frank a good businessman?

Hmmm, yes.

A lot creative people aren’t. As well, in the ‘70s taking care of business was practically frowned upon by artists.

People would then say to me, “Owen, you do what you think is right,” which was not a conscionable position for me. It wasn’t my music, it wasn’t my life, and it’s wasn’t my money. So I would have to try to force them to listen to me, and give them all of the pros and cons to make a decision.

But I’ll tell you, that when Gail became involved (in her husband’s business) it became a lot more business-like. But, you are right, in some sense, he had very good ideas. He was the first independent guy that set up his own company, and sold directly, and he had relationships directly with fans. All those concepts, he definitely originated.

Can you imagine Frank with the Internet?

Well, you know in 1986 or maybe a few years before, Frank wrote (an article) saying that one day music would be delivered over telephone lines. That was in the ‘80s. So he predicted that. As I said, he was way ahead of everybody else.

It was Frank who zapped the bootleggers in the early ‘90s.

I remember that we sat and talked about doing that. We were saying, “How do you fight them?” So we came up with, “Why don’t we just bootleg the bootleggers?”

That was radical at the time.

Oh yeah. Then we made the deal “Beat The Boots” (with Rhino Entertainment). I designed the contract for that so we weren’t actually licensing bootlegs because we didn’t own them. The deal was that we told the record company that we wouldn’t sue if they put out the bootlegs. But, we were not going to license the tracks to them, or agree that they had the rights. We agree that we won’t sue as long as they would pay us the publishing on (the releases), and whatever they sold, we would participate in (for mechanicals).

[“Beat the Boots” is a collection of bootleg recordings by Frank Zappa, which were originally distributed illegally, but were released officially by Rhino Entertainment in 1991 and 1992. The first 8-disc set spanned a 15 year period from 1967 to 1982. The 7-disc “Beat the Boots II” included “Swiss Cheese/Fire!,” which documented the famous 1971 concert at a casino in Montreux, Switzerland where the venue burned down, inspiring the lyrics of Deep Purple's "Smoke on the Water.”]

You basically flooded the market.

Yeah, and (the releases were) better quality because they remastered some of the stuff and used different artwork. So, who was going to complain? That was a great concept. I do remember working on that with Frank and working out the legalities of how to do it.

[On the opening track of “As An Am” from “Beat the Boots I,” Frank Zappa offers his thoughts about bootlegs: “As far as my material goes, it’s (bootlegging) a very big business. I don’t think it’s the work of a couple of individual guys who went out to make a record for fun. It’s one or two people who are releasing vast quantities of material…They’ve already got the stuff recorded live in concert before I can even release it on a record, and that makes me mad.”]

Gail Zappa is very well versed in the music industry. Generally, families of successful artists or songwriters aren’t well versed in the music business, and are often taken advantage of.

That happens all of the time. We had a situation with the Harry Warren Estate, where the copyrights had come up for renewal, and Warner (Warner/Chappell Music) made a deal with some people in the family to continue. They had no right to do that, because they were dealing with the wrong people at the wrong time. We busted that deal, and Warner had to make a new deal. A lot of the songs written originally were in (Warner) movies. The old agreements used to provide that they could use those songs, not only in that (original) movie or a remake or a sequel, but in anything produced or distributed by Warner without paying any more. The estate for years was getting nothing on other usages. We corrected that and made a deal where they had an in-house schedule which we agreed to for synchronizations for usages not in the original movie.

That’s one example of a situation in which the estate can definitely be taken advantage of, especially now with all of the termination rights (for copyright) coming due.

What advice would you give a family who loses someone with a significant catalog of copyrights?

It depends on how sophisticated, and how much time and effort that (the family) want to put into it. They would certainly—at the very least—have to have a good advisor; like hiring a lawyer that knows the whole (copyright) area and can advise them on it.

But, if they don’t want to spend the time, and they bring in a professional who would run the operation, they still have to have enough knowledge to be able to supervise and to make sure that that the representative that they picked isn’t going to rip them off or is doing a decent job.

So they need to put together a team?

If they have some sophistication and are willing to take the bull by the horns, they still need someone who knows the business. The essential participant would be a knowledgeable lawyer. From there, (they can determine) if they want to make an administration deal with an existing publisher or a publishing deal.

Families can be overwhelmed. I’m thinking of the difficulties Jimi Hendrix’s father Al Hendrix went through after his son died in 1970.

Oh God, what a mess.

Al and Janie Hendrix had to fight to claw back the rights to Jimi Hendrix’s legacy.

That’s it. You really have to have the gumption. Look, you also have to have the financing to be able to do it. If you are operating on a shoe string, it’s very difficult because everything costs money. You have to be vigilant, and go after people and fight battles that are sometimes years long.

[Al Hendrix died in 2002 at the age of 82. By this time, Experience Hendrix, the company he founded and entrusted with preserving and protecting the legacy of Jimi Hendrix, had gained control of his master recordings. Under Janie Hendrix, adopted by Al Hendrix in 1968 when he married her mother, Experience Hendrix today makes every effort to safeguard Jimi Hendrix’s legacy.]

The Bing Crosby Estate has had an ongoing battle for years with Universal Music Group over disputed royalties.

Yes. I was an expert witness in that case for Bing Crosby. He had contracts before 1943 but most of the big (hit) stuff was recorded under the ’43 contract. The interesting question in that case was how do you pay, because it was all shellac records—singles—in those days and (labels) had penny (mechanical) rates in their contracts.

The issue was dealing with CDs, downloads and all the other stuff. Do labels have those rights? And, if they do, how do they pay for them? You know the record companies would say, “Our policy is to pay on CDs.” They had a formula (for CD mechanical rates), and they just applied it.

But most labels didn’t have new technology clauses for older catalogs until the mid-70s.

Correct. There is a (companion) case still pending in the Bing Crosby dispute which is about that exact issue. The issue is, whether under the old contracts, Universal is entitled to exploit the (Crosby) masters digitally. There is no new technology clause in the contract at issue.

[After a decade-long battle, the heirs of Bing Crosby finally got their day in court. On June 30, 2010, a jury in Santa Monica, California awarded them in excess of $2 million in their lawsuit against Universal Music Group.

Crosby’s daughter Mary said, “Recording artists have a long history of being taken advantage of by their labels, and despite the incredible contribution my father made to the world of music, he was no exception. I give my mother a lot of credit for her willingness to hang in there for over a decade. It seems that record companies prefer to keep things in litigation for as long as possible because most people don’t have the resources to stick it out. This tactic generally works, because the majority of artists settle out of court for far less than they’re due.”

Bing Crosby, who died in 1977, recorded exclusively for Decca Records from Aug. 1934 until Dec. 1955. The Decca catalog—of 1,200 Crosby recordings—later became owned by Universal Music Group.

Crosby has sold close to one billion recordings, cassette tapes, CDs and digital downloads around the world. He may be the biggest selling recording artist of all time. Crosby had sold 200 million records by 1960, and the figure had doubled by 1980. The Guinness Book of World Records reports worldwide sales for his recording of “White Christmas” at over 100 million copies.]

You did some film and television work when you started practicing in 1969.

I did. The first project that I did in the entertainment business was legal work for “Medium Cool,” which (cinematographer, film producer and director) Haskell Wexler did. It’s a film about the 1968 Chicago riots during the Democratic Convention.

An interesting story about that is that there was a criminal libel statute in Illinois, and (the film makers) were worried that they could be prosecuted under that (statute) because of Mayor Daley. So, they asked me for an opinion. I gave them an opinion that the Illinois statute was unenforceable because it was unconstitutional. Then, they decided that an opinion from Owen Sloane might be right but they needed somebody bigger. So they went to (former Associate Supreme Court) Justice (Arthur) Goldberg, who had retired from the court (in 1965). He wrote an opinion, which was exactly what I said. So, I was vindicated by an (Associate) Supreme Court judge.

[In Aug. 1968, the Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago. Intended to showcase Mayor Richard Daley’s civic achievements to national Democrats and the news media, the proceedings instead garnered notoriety for the mayor and city.

Today, Wexler’s 1969 cinéma vérité styled film “Medium Cool” is studied by film students all over the world for its breakthrough form. Distributors, however, at the time considered the film controversial; its receiving an 'X' rating delayed its release. In 1970, it was re-rated 'R'. Discussing this, Wexler said: "They also objected to the language and the nudity, things which ultimately meant the film received an 'X' rating. What no one had the nerve to say was that it was a political 'X'.”]

That was a pretty political time.

Oh, God yeah. It was really charged. It was an interesting time. Then, I started to do more and more in the music area. I did some film and television work but I became more active in the music business. I basically concentrated on that thereafter.

Who was your first music client?

The first was Delaney & Bonnie in 1969. I was approached by their manager Allen Fraser while I was doing the work on “Medium Cool.” He said, “Delaney & Bonnie are signed to Stax Records in Memphis, and Jac Holzman (founder & CEO, chief of Elektra Records and Nonesuch Records) wants another rock band in addition to The Doors. He wants to sign our band, so I need a lawyer to help me get out of the Stax deal, and make the deal with Elektra.” He said, “Can you handle that? I said, “Sure.”

You then flew to Memphis to meet with Stax?

I picked the manager up (to drive to the airport) and the first thing he does is light a joint in my car. I’m thinking, "Oh gawd.” We get to Memphis, and I am paranoid about being in the South, and being with a hippie. It was like “Easy Rider.” He’s got a beard, he’s dressed like a hippie, and he’s smoking dope. Memphis had an underground music community at the time with musicians like Don Nix and others. They all came to the hotel room and hung out. They were smoking pot and I was throwing the roaches down the toilet and trying to clean up the air. I had struggled so hard to get through law school, and I had this vision of myself spending the rest of my life in a Tennessee jail.

The most exciting part was when I went to Stax at the converted movie theatre. There, I met (Stax co-founders) Jim Stewart and his sister Estelle Axton. They took us around. Booker T (Jones) was there and some of the Stax acts. It was so exciting to meet these legendary people. We got through that (negotiation). The next step was meeting with Jac Holzman. We made that deal. From then on, (my practice) just started to grow.

Do you look back at the ‘70s and early ‘80s, with the likes of Jac Holzman, Jerry Moss and Herb Alpert at A&M, Bob Krasnow at Blue Thumb, and Ahmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler at Atlantic being there, as a golden era in the music industry?

There’s no question about it. Even Clive Davis (at Columbia and Arista) you can add to that list. He was a major force. These people were really musically oriented. The thing (success) starts with the music and the songs and developing a real artist. I have oftentimes said that a great artist isn’t discovered, they are developed. The development process for an artist now is mostly on their own, as opposed to being guided and developed by somebody like a Wexler or A&M. I don’t think that (development) exists anymore with labels. (Executives) do pay lip service to that and say, “We do develop acts.” But, to be honest with you, I don’t think that’s the case.

As well, artists recording and releasing their own music themselves often lack expert guidance.

That’s true. The development part of (creating) with an unbiased neutral party listening and making you work harder and perfect stuff and not accept second best, that’s missing. Just little refinements. I remember sitting with Jim Weatherly, who I represented for years, and producer Jimmy Bowen in L.A. Weatherly had written a song called “Midnight Plane to Houston.” Bowen said, “You know, there’s something wrong with that title. Why don’t you change it to “Midnight Train to Georgia?” That is an example how subtle (a neutral party can be). But, it made a big difference.

[Jim Weatherly recorded "Midnight Plane to Houston" for Jimmy Bowen's Amos Records. In 1972, R&B singer Cissy Houston released "Midnight Train to Georgia” as a single. The following year, the song was released by Gladys Knight & the Pips, and reached #1 on Billboard’s Hot 100 chart.]

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, the London Times and the New York Times.


Industry Profile Archives:
Mick The DJ, DJ/Enterpeneur 04/30/15
Jeremy Lascelles & Robin Millar, Blue Raincoat Chrysalis Group 12/01/17
Joanne Abbot Green, CMJ Music Marathon and Film Festival 10/17/08
Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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