Industry Profile: Jeff Price

— By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Jeff Price, founder and CEO, TuneCore.

Over the past decade, a mountain of tools and services has re-shaped the music business.

As music fans now discover and experience music in many different ways, the traditional gatekeepers have been largely swept away; and the DIY ability to reach out directly to consumers has become a pivotal part of the music industry food chain.

With its more than 500,000 unsigned independent clients, TuneCore in Brooklyn, New York distributes to iTunes, Amazon and others. If anyone can sell through TuneCore, then iTunes and the others are open to just about any musician.

As a result, for the first time in recorded music history, artists can directly reach mass retail without a label.

“There are more artists making money now than in any point in the history of the music industry,” declares Jeff Price, the combative founder and CEO, of TuneCore. “And there are more artists being bought, heard, streamed, listened to, and shared than any point in the history of this industry.”

With TuneCore, any artist, for a minimal maintenance fee, has access to the channels of music distribution while they are able to maintain control of all of their master and publishing rights. They also receive all of the revenue from the sale of their music.

In 2006, Price and his partners launched TuneCore. Within 24 months, TuneCore had amassed over 65,000 customer accounts; had delivered over 500,000 songs; and generated over $5.5 million in music sales.

Price had previously been GM / president of New York-based spinART records for 17 years—the first record label anywhere to offer its catalog of releases via paid download as MP3s.

Before it folded, spinART had distributed over 200 releases, including those by such acts as: Ron Sexsmith, the Dears, the Pixies, Frank Black, Nellie McKay, John Doe, Apples In Stereo, Vic Chesnutt, Richard Thompson, Echo & the Bunnymen, Paul Kelly, the Fastbacks, the Church, Lilys, the Eels, Clem Snide, Michael Penn and others.

Meanwhile, from 1997 to 2001, Price worked with eMusic, which launched the first online digital music store in 1998. Price served first as a consultant; next as interim VP of content acquisition; and finally as the senior dir. of music/business development. He is credited with creating and implementing the first subscription-based music sales and distribution structure.

According to TuneCore, its artists—which have included such known names as Drake, Nine Inch Nails, Aretha Franklin, Medic Droid, MGMT, Tapes 'n Tapes, the Zac Brown Band, Kelly, Ricky Skaggs, Ziggy Marley, and Izzy Stradlin—have sold over 300 million streams and downloads, generating over $130 million dollars in gross music sales.

Meanwhile, as acts like Boyce Avenue, Secondhand Serenade, Blood on the Dance Floor, Colt Ford, and Brantley Gilbert fly below the radar of the music industry and the mainstream media, they are racking up some eye-popping sales figures.

Do you like the term “indie artist?”

I like the term “indie artist” as long as it is taken the right way. Arcade Fire, as you are aware, won the Grammy for Best Album (for "The Suburbs”), and the media’s reaction was disgusting. “A shocker.” What is so shocking about Arcade Fire winning a Grammy because they are an indie artist? So they are second-class artists?

I think the response was really about the Grammy’s traditional conservatism as indicated by Lady Antebellum winning 5 Grammys this year.

I didn’t read that (the Grammys) were conservative. That’s not the angle of the Huffington Post article or CNN or the local TV news media that I saw reporting on it. They weren’t talking about the conservatism of the Academy, and how unusual it is for them to broaden. They were discussing how an indie band, this second-class citizen band, could be awarded such as prestigious award. I saw the word “indie artist.” The Huffington Post put on its own page “Shocker: Indie band wins best album.”

Indie artists are treated like second-class citizens, and it’s a badge of honor for many artists. An artist now is an artist whether they are signed to a major record label or signed to an independent record label or are themselves independent.

[The Huffington Post news story was quickly re-headlined to, “An indie rock band has won the biggest prize in mainstream music.” The article went on to say, “The Arcade Fire, whose third album, "The Suburbs," set the summer ablaze for young fans around the world, completely shocked the Grammy Awards on Sunday, taking home the award for Album of The Year. They beat out Eminem and Lady Antebellum, both of whom had taken awards home earlier in the night.”

In follow-up Grammy stories in The Huffington Post, Austin-based writer Phil West wrote a wry appreciation of the Canadian band, and its indie roots under the headline, “Why America Hates Arcade Fire, And Why That’s Sort of Hilarious.” Another Huffington Post story with the headline, “Who Is Arcade Fire?” poked fun at those “out of touch” people who didn’t know the band.]

You have people like Tommy Silverman (chairman and CEO of Tommy Boy Records) making public statements that 80% of the music being released by artists on TuneCore is crap, and is cluttering the market space. Indie artists are treated as second-class citizens by some of this industry and that pisses me off. It pisses me off, because it denies them opportunities that they should be getting. If you have people that work with Pepsi or Coke or brands or radio stations hearing over and over, “look at the little indie club,” then (these industry people) are communicating something.

[In a July, 2010 Wired magazine feature, titled “What's Wrong With The Music Biz,” Tommy Silverman charged TuneCore with helping to clutter the music environment.

In the interview Silverman said, “In 2008 there were 17,000 releases that sold one copy. Last year (2009), there were 18,000, and something like 79,000 releases that sold under 100 copies. Under 100 copies is not a real release — it’s noise, an aberration. In any kind of scientific study, it would be filtered out. It’s like a rounding error. That 79,000 number represents almost 80 percent of all the records released that year.

“80 percent of all records released are just noise — hobbyists. Some companies like TuneCore are betting on the long tail because they get the same $10 whether you sell one copy or 10,000. Who uses Photobucket and Flickr? Not professional photographers — those are hobbyists, and those are the people who are using TuneCore and iTunes to clutter the music environment with crap, so that the artists who really are pretty good have more trouble breaking through than they ever did before.”]

You have a staff of 32 people.

Sometimes, I turn around, and I think, “Oh my gawd, when did this happen?” There are four people in finance; a chief marketing officer with two people under her; a chief operations officer; and then there’s the artist support staff. There’s a sub-division of the artist support staff which deals with copyright infringement and fraud. I can’t tell you the things that have popped up, and I’ve thought, “You have to be kidding me. I have to deal with this sort of stuff?”

Are you libel for copyright infringement?

We warrant and represent to the digital stores that the content is cleared to use. Fortunately, there are safe harbor laws in the U.S. (a provision of a statute or a regulation that reduces or eliminates a party's liability under the law), and we don’t make any money when the music sells. But that does not mean that we believe that there should be copyright infringement. So we invested our own time and money to put a team together. We review every release that moves through the system to make sure that it’s not an infringement.

How can you insure that?

When our customers use TuneCore, they have to warrant and declare that they control the rights of the master recording, and that they are going to pay the people that they are supposed to pay. We put up a lot of (copyright) information on our site. Sometimes, it’s nobody’s fault, but people aren’t always educated on what copyright is about. They don’t understand that they just can’t cover a Michael Jackson song without compensating the songwriter through a mechanical royalty reproduction. So, there’s some unintentional infringement that happens. We do workshops, we put out booklets, and we put up information on our site (about copyright and other issues). I want everybody to make the money that they are supposed to make.

Within 24 months of launching TuneCore in 2006, you had 65,000 customers. How many customer accounts do you now have?

About 520,000.

You feel that anybody should be able to make music, and put it up for sale. No barriers to get into the music industry?

No barriers. Just like there shouldn’t be any barrier to someone taking a music class, hiring a music teacher, or buying a guitar.

Many people feel there’s too much product, and too many artists today. That it’s hard to distinguish between artists. No longer are there gatekeepers. A musician can record in a home studio without any career guidance. And, that’s what the recording industry once did.

I couldn’t disagree with you more. Some 98% of what the major record companies released failed. So much for the gatekeepers. They had a 2% hit radio, and a 98% failure ratio. Okay, let’s go to the guy that creates shitty music, and it’s sitting on a computer hard drive. Well, the music still exists; it’s sitting on their hard drive. Let’s have that music sit on Apple’s hard drive. What’s the difference? How did the marketplace just get cluttered?

When you go to iTunes, the only way that you can find music is by clicking on something, or typing in a band name or the name of a song. Nobody puts a gun to your head, and makes you go and listen to what might be considered bad music. Nobody makes you go to somebody’s MySpace. What’s the difference if the music sits on their hard drive, or sits on Apple’s hard drive?

It still takes a major label to develop a major act today, certainly internationally. It just isn’t good enough to put music up online, you have to do some marketing behind a release.

It makes perfect sense what you are saying; I just don’t agree with it. The reason that I don’t agree is because of the 98% failure ratio at the major labels. They spent billions of dollars pushing out bands you’ve never heard of. So marketing something doesn’t make something a success. I know that’s not what you are saying, but I’m trying to make a point.

The second part of this is that art causes a reaction. If “Smell Like Teen Spirit” (by Nirvana) was a crappy song, it doesn’t matter how many times you saw the video or heard it, art has to cause a reaction.

I will state this, I am uniquely qualified to make some of these statements, not because I have a big ego, but because I have access to data that nobody in the planet has. TuneCore artists have sold 300 million units in the past 2 1/2 years, generating over $130 million in music sales. These are bands that apparently you have never heard of. How did they do that?

What was the gross sales figure for TuneCore artists in 2010?

2010, If I recall correctly, is somewhere in the neighborhood of $90 million if you take into account all of the income streams generated off of the sale of a song.

[According to Price, the 2010 tally came from adding together revenue from varied sources, including: music sales (downloads); music streams free (ad supported like Spotify); music streams paid (like Mog, Rdio, Napster, and Rhapsody); ad supported video streams on sites like YouTube; mechanical reproduction royalties for downloads; interactive stream mechanical royalties; public performance royalties; income derived from digital transmissions; and from TV and film synch licensing, etc.]

What income came from streaming and downloads?

I won’t answer that question because I don’t think that’s a proper way to discuss it. The revenue generation is no longer predicated on music sales.

You have public performance income that has gone up 75% in the past 6 years; from $1 billion to over $3 billion dollars collected by ASCAP, BMI and SESAC from public performances. Guess who is getting that money for the first time? These “unsigned” artists. It is not just coming from AM and FM radio airplay. It is coming from YouTube and MySpace streams; and public performances from services like Pandora,, Slacker, Spinner or AOL.

You have digital transmission revenue coming in from things like Slacker, Pandora and LastFm that went from $15 million in 2004 in revenue generated, to $200 million in 2009 generated, according to Sound Exchange.

You’ve got digital income. You’ve got merchandise sales. You’ve got work-for-hire. So I’m going to state it emphatically and empirically, the revenue generation for artists is up. It’s not down, and it’s up significantly. There are more artists making money now than in any point in the history of the music industry. And there are more artists being bought, heard, streamed, listened to, and shared than at any point in the history of this industry.

There are certainly more sources of music-related income today.

The real value of music is copyright. The amount of money generated off the sale of music is going to continue to decrease. The sale of music is going to get cheaper and cheaper. The one thing that is going to go up and up, as far as the volume of revenue, is the publishing side. It’s derivative; it’s the public display; it’s mechanical reproduction. What gets left out of the conversations of revenue generation is this other side of the coin. Why doesn’t that get talked about?

I hear people say there’s a decrease in revenue off of music sales. Bullshit! Actually, the number of songs being sold, and the number of artists selling them and the number of units being sold is up and not down. It’s way up. It was only up 1% this year, jeez, I’m sorry it only went up to 1.7 billion units sold as compared to 10 years ago when it was below 600 million.

The amount of revenue being generated is sky-rocketing for the artist. It is decreasing significantly for a record label, but for an artist that goes (sells) direct, it has gone the way up. It is fascinating because the cost of buying a song is going down. The cost of buying music is down because there’s no middleman getting a piece of the revenue coming in for the sale of the music.

With TuneCore, the net income goes directly into the pockets of artists?

Let me give you an example. Sell one album of 10 songs or more on iTunes and an artist makes $7.00. If they sell one album through a major record label, they make $1.40. They sell two songs—just two songs on iTunes in the U.S., and they will make $1.40. So, the amount of revenue going to an artist’s pocket is up.

Still, I would doubt if the median income for musicians has risen.

I disagree.

With so many musicians out there today, it’s harder to make money as an independent.

That’s absolutely false. I can show you artists that are now making (significant) incomes that five or 10 years ago, without TuneCore’s existence, were making zero. I can list probably 10 artists that have made $1 million through TuneCore. Boyce Avenue sold two million songs in the past 24 months. Ever heard of them? Secondhand Serenade used TuneCore before they decided to go over Warners (on Daniel Glass’ Glassnote Records) and sold 1/4 million songs in 45 days. Kelly (Liam Kyle Sullivan) uploaded the “Shoes” video to YouTube (with over 40 million views) and has sold 2.8 million songs in the past 24 months.

Blood on the Dance Floor wrote some songs about sexting and sold upwards of 750,000 songs in the past three months. Lecrae, a Christian hip hop artist, 1.8 million songs sold. Country artist Colt Ford has sold over a million units, and Brantley Gilbert has sold 750,000 songs. Drake used TuneCore before he was signed to a record label and sold 800,000 songs. I could go on and on.

How can the media or the general population say that artists aren’t making money, and that the music space is cluttered? Sales are up, not down. More artists are making money then any point in history. I am not saying every artist. That’s ridiculous. Nor am I suggesting that they ever would. I am saying that there are more artists making more money.

Just in the last month (reported at TuneCore), Lecrae sold 5,000 albums and 33,000 singles. Boyce Avenue did 42,436 songs and 2,500 albums. Charlie McDonnell—7,683 songs, and 3,300 albums. Colt Ford—30,000 songs, 1,400 albums. This is real money.

Today is like the ‘60s again, when there were garage bands everywhere.

How is it different from the way it was? All that has happened is that the music that has been recorded is sitting on iTunes’ hard drive. What has changed? When I was running spinArt, do you know how many demos we got?

Everybody thinks they deserve to be a star today.

That is a direct impact of technology, where everybody is getting their 15 minutes of fame. You can put yourself onto a MySpace page and, all of a sudden, you are famous. Fame is getting shorter. It is getting harder to have legacy type fame.

People watch “American Idol” and figure they can be stars too.

I agree with you that everybody thinks they can do it, but I would also suggest that be it the ‘60s, ‘70s, ‘80s or whatever, there were always people that wanted to pursue the dream. How is performing on “American Idol” or having access to a (home) studio causing clutter? If the art doesn’t cause a reaction, it bombs. What got cluttered?

Technology has provided an access to the entertainment business that wasn’t there previously.

That’s absolutely right. Technology has made it a hell of a lot easier. The distribution component was the most important component of what the major labels were. If you had enough money, you could market and promote (music) on your own. But, even with money, you couldn’t do the distribution.

I think you would be thrilled with the fact that technology has changed everything, because there are so many artists now being given opportunities to have access without having to write that stupid, vapid pop Twinkie single. Ultimately, what I think will come out of this is artist development again.

Nevertheless, it is a challenging marketplace, and many artists have unrealistic expectations.

Nobody creates music and says, “This sucks and nobody is going to buy it.” When they make their art, everybody thinks it’s the best thing in the world, and they believe in it. Sometimes it is, and sometimes it still is, but people don’t buy it.

What hasn’t developed in recent years is the art of songwriting.

That, I agree with. With the consolidation of the media into multinational conglomerates, they don‘t have patience with artist development anymore and they want to get an ROI (return on investment) in three months. So it's all about one-hit Twinkie pop singles.

If TuneCore is so successful for artists, why have many artists moved onto a major label? Like Drake, MGMT, or Zac Brown Band?

You are going to have to ask them, but I can provide you with a list with artists that haven’t. I’m not a record label killer. I think that there’s value. You cannot be Lady Gaga without a major record label. Period. End of story. You cannot get commercial radio play without a major record label in the United States.

Why did you do a deal with Universal Music in 2009?

The reason I did the deal was that I felt that it was my responsibility to provide artists with opportunity and information (about a major label). Then, it would be up to them as to what they wanted to do. There are artists that would like to be signed by record labels. It’s not my place to tell them that they shouldn’t be. I believe that it is my job to provide them with access to (information) to pursue their dreams and goals.

What did you learn from running spinART records that you brought to TuneCore?

I had 17 years of running my own label with my high school friend and partner. I started spinArt records with my friend Joel Morowitz out of college in 1991. Then 17 years later, the label shut down.

Somewhere along the way in 1996 or ’97, I bumped paths with the guys that founded eMusic, the first online digital music store. I worked with them doing content licensing. I’d call other record labels and negotiate with them to get the rights to sell their music online for pay downloads, MP3s for 99 cents. This was in ’96 and ’97 which predated Napster and iTunes.

MP3 music downloads weren’t readily available then.

It was being done by a very elite, techno crowd at the time, People didn’t really know what MP3s were.

eMusic launched as the music industry’s first online digital music store in 1998, and sold music from independent labels.

I was involved in launching that, and contributed to the original business plan. I licensed content and did the business development with them. I moved out west and worked with them for a year in San Francisco while continuing to co-run my label with Joel.

In 2000, I moved back to New York, and built up the label. In 2005, it was kind of going down. That really got me thinking of how I could stay involved in the music industry. Over the past 17 years, I had the fortune to release acts like, the Pixies, Frank Black, Echo and the Bunnymen, the Church, Apples In Stereo, Clem Snide, the Boo Radleys, Ron Sexsmith, and By Divine Right. We had over 200 releases.

Why did spinArt fold?

We weren’t making enough money. People weren’t buying the music that we were releasing. It’s that simple. We just never had a hit. It was a great label. I loved every record we put out. But unfortunately, we never had an artist that sold a lot of music.

spinArt operated very much as a grassroots, independent label. You didn’t have exclusive deals with artists. They could leave at any point.

Well, they could. There weren’t multiple options usually for futures (rights). We did 50/50 net profit split deals. We didn’t control the masters and the artists always made more money than we did.

How did you finance the launch of TuneCore?

I had been in such significant debt with the demise of spinArt. Credit cards and all. God, that sucked. It sucked hard. But myself, and my friends Gary Burke (Chief Technology Officer) and Peter Wells (SVP Operations, Customer Advocate) worked together at eMusic and we pooled our money, asked friends and relatives, and launched TuneCore off of that.

Musical instrument retailer Guitar Centre is also an investor in TuneCore.

Once we launched, I cold-called Guitar Centre and, by pure luck, I talked with its CEO Marty Albertson. I met up with Marty at the West 14th Street Guitar Centre Store in New York. Ultimately, that ended with Guitar Centre investing and helping to grow TuneCore. I had figured that they had (access to) lots of musicians that would be interested in what we were doing, and the timing was right. They are a fantastic partner.

Here you are in debt, and needing a job; why start TuneCore after spinArt?

What happened is that before spinArt went down, I got approached by these new music distribution companies, which were just like the old (distributors). They said, “We’re going to distribute your music into the retail stores, and every time it sells we are going to take a percentage of the money.” The difference was that the retail stores were iTunes, and not Tower Records.

The era of Tower Records and music retail in the U.S. was coming to a close.

Yeah, it was. The internet grew as broadband grew and as hardware devices like the iPod came into the market and so forth. Ultimately, the (music) industry imploded on itself. Here I was in 2005, and the label was going out of business and I was trying to think how I could still have a career in the music business and what could I do?

Let me guess, the new music distribution companies wanted 15% to 30% of the gross sale?

That’s right. My response to them was, “Wait a second, you are not a physical distributor.” In the old days the physical distributor, in my opinion, earned their percentage of the sale because they did something. They fronted money, they worked for it blah, blah, blah. But in the digital world? “C’mon dude, you are moving a file from point A to point B. You are telling me that I am supposed to give you this amount of the revenue for the sale of the music? For doing what? You put a file onto Apple’s hard drive.”

You have been a vocal critic of the traditional digital distributor/aggregator model.

That’s why I started TuneCore. The label was going down, but (my decision) really was moral indignation with the (new distribution) model. It was morally wrong. I was like, “You are screwing people. I don’t think an artist should sign away to five year exclusivity to you, and give up 30% of the revenue of their music, simply because you are the guy with the golden ticket contract to Apple because Apple won’t do deals directly with artists. So you have the artists over a barrel, and you are going to screw them.”

I remember being on a panel with some guys from these new digital distributors before this went down, and I had this heated argument with them. I asked, “How do you justify the fact that I, as spinArt records, put out significant monies for the Dears to go on tour—fronted over $100,000 in co-op advertising, and begged, borrowed, pleaded and banged my head against the wall? We’re doing everything we can to break this band, to make them become more popular. Meanwhile, the Dears are sleeping on floors. And you tell me that you are going to take 30% of the revenue every time their music sells, because you have it on Apple’s hard drive?”

Is that why you developed the flat rate model for TuneCore?

Absolutely. I think it’s a valuable service. I think that you should pay for (distribution), but it should be equitable. It shouldn’t be, “I’m going to put you in iTunes; give me your rights; give me money every time your music sells; you have to let me be the person who collects it; and I am only going to pay you every 90 days, although I get paid every 30 days; and I’m only going to pay you if you have reached a minimum.” In all due respect, “Go fuck yourself.”

How does the flat rate service work?

Anyone who makes music or spoken word can go to TuneCore, and get access to distribution to iTunes and more. They upload the song, they upload the art, they pick the stores that they want (the music) to go into, and they pay a flat rate. It’s $9.99 (annually) for a single; and $49.99 (annually) for an album. That’s it. They get 100% of the revenue. (The agreement) is non-exclusive. They can cancel whenever they want. That’s the annual charge. There are other whistles and bells that come with it, but that’s the general thing.

With spinArt, you were selling physical product at a time when physical distribution was under enormous stress.

It was predominantly physical, until near the end. spinArt was the first label to put its catalog up online, and make it available for pay-downloaded MP3s.

Traditionally, if an artist wanted to have a career in the music industry, they had to get signed by a record label.

The reason for that was because the record label had a deal with a distributor. In the United States, you had three million square miles, and 10,000 plus physical music stores. You needed to have someone to pick up the phone and call these 10,000 retail stores, and then pick, pack and send out orders to the stores. You also needed people running around to those stores to convince the people that owned them to put your CD on the shelf.

If you were going to sell 100,000 copies of something (then), you had to manufacture at least 180,000 copies of it, and hope the hell it sold through because if it didn’t, you had to eat the costs of the manufacturing.

As an artist, if you wanted to have a career, you had to get signed to the label, and the label had distribution. As an artist, you just could not do distribution on your own. You didn’t have the infrastructure. Remember that anything shipped out could be returned at any point for a refund. So you needed a finance department to deal with credit terms, and everything that was returned either needed to be refurbished or destroyed. Then you have to buy your way into the shelf space at the store through advertising programs and so on.

If you really wanted a career, if you wanted the ability to be an Alanis Morissette, you had to be signed to a label, because you needed the distribution arm to get the product on the shelve, deal with all nuances of it, but you also needed the company to front the cost of manufacturing.

Labels also provided marketing sizzle for the music and the artist.

Sure, but that’s nothing to do with what the major labels were. The major labels were distributors. That’s what they were, and that’s what empowered them. Absolutely. The control of a major record company was about the distribution arm. That’s what market share is.

You have to concede they brought sizzle to the table.

Oh, absolutely. They provided marketing and helped to make the product. Columbia Records, in some ways, was a research and development arm of Sony Distribution. Columbia Records would identify, and create a new lemon-flavored Pepsi in the form of Mariah Carey. Then they would take Mariah Carey and they would help shape, develop and manufacture the product and give it to the distributor who would shove it out to the stores. Then Columbia’s marketing arm would attempt to get people to hear Mariah Carey’s music and hope that it caused a reaction. Yes, the major labels had access to the media outlets but, first and foremost, they were and are distributors. The music industry, however you want to frame it, was (then) about (physical) distribution. That’s what they had the stranglehold over.

Any indie label or artist had to have a catalog. If the distributor or store didn’t need your next record, they wouldn’t always pay you.

That’s absolutely true. When I first started spinArt I remember chasing up a number of these smaller distributors. The indies were always about borrowing from Peter to pay Paul. Unless you had a hit, a massive hit, it was always borrowing here to pay there. You released the next (recording), and you took the money from that to pay off the older stuff. Fortunately, we got big enough with spinArt that we got into a deal with a reputable distribution arm. We worked with Caroline (Distribution), ultimately. Through the years we were with Caroline and then moved into ADA, and then over to Ryko Distribution.

What ended up happening is that the (multinationals) began to go after the independent market share, and they created their own independent distributors like ADA Distribution or Wasabi Group and so forth. Those entities were very reliable in paying, whereas the true independents like Dutch East India Distribution, I remember taking them to small claims court to get payment for the vinyl that they wouldn’t pay me on.

Couldn’t artists do distribution on a regional basis?

Doing it regionally was very limited, and very time-consuming. It wouldn’t have allowed you to have a career. The idea of being an active touring band while simultaneously calling a couple hundred stores regionally while picking and packing orders with invoices and then calling stores up to get paid wasn’t possible. Try to get paid by the distributor? Try to get paid by the retail store.

Many distributors didn’t work with small indie stores that were so important. Often, an indie label or indie band had to use several regional distributors.

Oh yeah, and there were one-stops (distributors), and they would mark up even more. Basically, you went through a middleman to a middleman to the store and the second middleman would jack up the price.

Under the traditional physical “pick, pack and ship” model, an artist needed a physical distributor which would then take a percentage of the money from the sales of the CDs.

If the album sold at Tower Records for $10, (the distributor) would take 25% of it and pocket $2.50 and give the remaining $7.50 to the label, and the label would kick back $1.40 to $1.70 to the artist. That was the economic food chain of the traditional music industry, more or less.

Digital distribution screwed all that up.

It did. The first major change was that you had unlimited shelf space where everything could be in stock with no detriment to anything else. In the old world, only so many records could fit on the shelves. If something was on the shelf, something was not. In the new world, everything could be on the shelf because it’s simply a hard drive. If you run out of room, you pop in another hard drive. So, you no longer have to fight for shelf space. It can just be available.

And the second major change that occurred was that you had unlimited inventory that would replicate on demand as a perfect digital copy. It would never run out and there were no upfront costs for it. So, if you have unlimited shelf space where everything can be in stock and have unlimited inventory that never runs out and no upfront costs, you just circumvented the traditional music industry. The traditional music industry is based on physical distribution. You no longer needed a pick, pack and ship warehouse.

What advice can you offer an artist considering putting their music with TuneCore?

We have a blog,, with tons of information. We have a lot of PDF booklets that artists can download-—tips on putting their music online. We do market and promote but, honestly, their art has to cause a reaction.

Artist now have direct access to the media outlets. So number one, they should make a YouTube video. Even if it’s off of a cell phone or a camera or a Mac. Create a video, and upload it to YouTube. Video can be a very efficient way to drive notoriety and fame.

Number two, what is it that they want, and what are their goals? That’s really important. Once they determine what they want, they have to figure out the path of how to get there. Their path could be that they want to be Justin Bieber, and they can follow the Justin Bieber model. They can upload videos of themselves to YouTube and they can distribute a single or some songs into iTunes, and they can try to get on the eyes and radar of large media companies, like Disney or Universal, that are trying to find talent.

Liam Kyle Sullivan uploaded his video “Shoes” to YouTube and created this character, Kelly. He does quite well for himself off of that. He turned down many major label deals. He now tours nationally with sold out gigs, and he has created his own line of clothing

Boyce Avenue has created sizable interest through their postings on YouTube as well.

The brothers (Alejandro, Daniel and Fabian Manzano) began recording acoustic cover versions in their own way. They uploaded these videos to YouTube, and they began to get followers from that. Then they started doing their own original music, and have sold over a million songs. Universal Republic signed them (last year), but they were recently dropped, and they came back to TuneCore and now have their best selling album of all time. We’re talking hundreds of thousands of units in the past 30 to 45 days.

[Boyce Avenue is, in fact, an internet sensation. The Puerto Rican-American acoustic rock band was formed in 2004 by brothers Alejandro, Daniel and Fabian Manzano in Sarasota, Florida. In 2007, Boyce Avenue began posting videos on YouTube which now have reached a combined total of over 250 million views.

“Our second video was a Rihanna ‘Umbrella’ cover, and somehow that just took off for us,” recently explained Daniel Manzano. “But the biggest eye-opener for us was when we went to play four shows in the Philippines. We knew there was something there because we were getting a lot of comments in Tagalog on our videos, but we didn't know the scope of it. It was just insanity. That was the moment we realized it had gone international.”]

You are the guy who passed on signing both the Shins, and Spoon in the ‘90s.

What did that teach me? What I do know is what that taught me. People passed on signing the Beatles. What is good is subjectivity. (With TuneCore), I decided that I wanted to do one thing, and do it really well. That’s what we focus on. We do (distribution) better than anybody in the world, and I’m so proud of that.

The things that I say aren’t being said because I’m trying to drum up business for my company. It pisses me off when people think that. I passionately believe in what I’m saying—not that it makes me a buck. Technology has created a way for things to be available if people want to buy them. So, make them available. If you are a kid in the bedroom, and you write a song and you record it, why not put it on a hard drive somewhere? If someone is searching for it, they can find it. What’s the harm?

I will fight tooth-and-nail with anybody that states that there’s too much music in the marketplace, that artists aren’t selling, and that sales are down. That’s just wrong.

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, and the London Times. He is co-author of the book “Music From Far And Wide: Celebrating 40 Years Of The Juno Awards.”


Industry Profile Archives:
Mick The DJ, DJ/Enterpeneur 04/30/15
Jeremy Lascelles & Robin Millar, Blue Raincoat Chrysalis Group 12/01/17
Joanne Abbot Green, CMJ Music Marathon and Film Festival 10/17/08
Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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