Industry Profile: Pam Weiser

— By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Pam Weiser, executive vice-president, Momentous Insurance Brokerage.

According to Pam Weiser, proper insurance is what insures that the entertainment industry’s wheel goes around and around.

The affable Weiser, executive vice-president at Momentous Insurance Brokerage, headquartered in Van Nuys, California, puts together insurance packages for the entertainment industry.

She has worked in the entertainment insurance field since 1980. Prior to being a broker, she was an underwriter. She is well-versed in music, film coverage, and personal insurance.

Momentous Insurance Brokerage is a full service entertainment-based firm specializing in designing insurance programs for high net worth individuals, film and TV productions, music and touring companies, and artists.

Momentous offers nonappearance policies for concerts and tours, and business package policies for commercial enterprises that entertainers or entertainment executives own.

It also offers personal lines policies, such as coverage for homeowners including life, disability, and vehicle insurance etc.

The company recently launched its Nightlife Division, a dedicated insurance unit founded by Graham T. Orleans, for DJs, performers, promoters, and nightclub owners.

Obviously, liability exposure for entertainers is highest during their tours.

Today, there are multiple players involved with liabilities arising from touring and each tries to share limits on a policy.

Promoters generally accept the liability for bodily injury and property damage, and name artists as additional insureds.

There are also cases where the venue requests that the promoter add them to the same policy. There are some venues who ask both the promoter and the artist to name them as additional insureds.

If the limits are not enough, however, an entertainer could be named in the suit and become responsible for the excess limits, particularly if their negligence can be proven.

This may prove to be the case with the tragic, weather-related stage collapses that rocked the touring industry this summer.

Seven people died, and 40 were injured when the stage collapsed at a Sugarland concert in Indianapolis; five died in Belgium when a storm toppled the stage at the Pukkelpop Festival; and a heavy storm brought down the lighting rig at a Flaming Lips concert in Oklahoma.

As well, several people were injured when the stage went down at Bluesfest in Ottawa.

Meanwhile, there's been an adjournment in the case against three Canadian companies charged in the 2009 fatal stage collapse at the Big Valley Jamboree music festival near Camrose, Alberta.

More than a dozen people were injured, and a woman was killed when a powerful windstorm swept through the festival site.

A total of 33 charges were laid against Panhandle Productions, Global Production Company and a numbered Alberta company.

In Indiana, 45 tort claims have been filed alerting the state of possible lawsuits in the wake of the Indiana State Fair stage collapse.

A month following the August collapse, Sugarland—who never actually got to perform--was being blamed for the incident, together with their "members, agents and employees.” The band is one of 15 defendants in a new filing.

While a lawsuit has not yet been submitted, this legal notice sets the stage for further action.

Teams of investigators are currently researching the circumstances surrounding the Indiana State Fair disaster, including a review of permits, inspections and safety plans. This investigation is expected to take as long as eight months.

What are your duties at Momentous?

What I do is I co-ordinate all the accounts that we handle within our company. My specialty is entertainment. So I put together comprehensive insurance packages for the entertainment industry which includes touring entertainers, actors and actresses and well as motion picture/television insurance.

Is entertainment a big part of Momentous coverage?

Tour coverage is not a big money maker because there are a lot of insurance companies out there, and they compete a lot. Premiums aren’t as expensive as you might think they might be. What we do—and what I think makes Momentous so special—is that we can handle every single (insurance) aspect of an artist’s life. Whether it be personal, medical or commercial, we can give them a package. We can insure their personal cars, their vans, trucks and buses. We can insure their buildings.

When an artist gets going in this business, they get a bit of money, and they open other businesses. We have several artists that have restaurants or clothing lines. So we are able to envelope that as well. You come to us, and you say that you want to raise snakes in a tree, and that you need insurance for it. What we are good at is putting that insurance in place for you.

Do you tour with the bands you cover?

I never go on the road. I have been to the concerts, and I have stayed at the hotels, but I have never been on a (band) bus. I have never done that. I have been offered.

Any natural disaster must keep you busy.

I can never enjoy a natural disaster. I know that sounds funny. I remember when Hurricane Katrina was going into New Orleans. I remember watching it, and thinking, “What a beautiful hurricane. It’s perfectly formed.” And it was all over the news, and it was TV during the Labor Day weekend. I was at home, and I was doing things around the house, and I kept watching it.

Saturday night, I went, “Wait, I have a studio (in New Orleans). Do I have flood coverage there?” I swear to God that I didn’t sleep all night. I got on the computer the next day. I couldn’t find the flood coverage. I was devastated. I went back and I went into the file. It took me an hour to finally find out where the flood coverage was. It was with another carrier. They had written the primary flood (insurance); I had excess flood on (the policy).

So I could sleep.

But I was also writing non-appearance coverage on two artists that could not perform in New Orleans. So I worried about that too.

[Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in American history. At least 1,836 people died in the hurricane, and in the subsequent floods. Total property damage has been estimated at $81 billion.]

As you said, you also handle personal insurance for artists.

For their homes, their vehicles, their children’s lives, their health, their disabilities. Whenever there’s a fire in the (Hollywood) hills, we’re on the phone all night long. We are sending each other lists of zip codes to find out where the fires are. We are running lists, and we are notifying our clients. It’s not fun.

Many insurance companies dealing in entertainment are boutique operations.

Touring insurance is like any other kind of business insurance, but there are different nuances of coverage that people have to know. The only way you can be insured correctly is by someone who knows what is needed, and can put all of the parts together. There are a lot of people who get into insurance, and want to do entertainment, but they fail because they don’t know the business. You have to know the music business. You have know the film business. You have to know what you are insuring, and the working parts behind it. If you don’t, then it’s never going to work.

You must spend weekends waiting for the phone to ring.

You know what? You learn that insurance is like legal gambling. Sometimes you expect a claim, and sometimes it never happens. The ones that you don’t expect a claim on, it happens. Like Sugarland, for instance. Sugarland is country. They go around the United States. They have toured for a couple of years. They are beloved by their fans. They win Grammys, and they look nice. They are sharp, and they are business people. They run their business clean, and then something like this happens. It hasn’t been determined, but the fact of the matter is they probably are not responsible. But yet, they get called into something like this.

Sugarland has been named in a legal notice charging them with "gross negligence and/or recklessness" over the disaster.

Yes. (As a victim or family member of a victim) I would name them too. I don’t know who is at fault, but I am just going to name them all at the same time, and let them (investigators) sort it out; because I am going to get money. I am going to get money.

So you weren’t surprised by Sugarland being named in a legal notice in this case?

No. Not at all. I will be interested to see if some of the equipment companies get named in the suit too. Sugarland had the bad misfortune of going on next. They could have been off the stage, and out the door. But they might have hung a speaker that might have weakened it (the stage). If I am the stage insurance company or the stage lawyers, I’m going to go in there and say, “Sugarland was here, and they bumped one of the bars when they were taking their equipment on or off, and weakened the stage.”

You aren’t involved in the Indiana disaster in anyway?

No. When that stage collapsed, I was in bed ready to fall asleep. I was half-listening to the TV. It said, “Stage Collapse In Indiana; Several Killed,” and I was like, “Holy crap! What did the stage look like?” I opened my eyes to watch it (the coverage), and I was like “Oh, my God.” I went through a list in my head: “Who’s the group? Who’s the promoter? Who was the band before?”

I went through every single scenario in my head of who was there.

Then I was up all night.

Now what happens when something happens like this is that, because our office insures every facet of the touring industry, we’re on the phone all night. On the Monday, we were on the phone with the carriers. Who had it (the policy)? How much did you have? What is it? Who’s the promoter? Who’s this and who’s that? By the end of the of the day on Monday, we had a pretty good perspective of what this claim was going to be about, and how much money it was going to be worth to everybody. Then, of course, on top of that you are feeling so horrible for the people who have lost a loved one or were injured.

The Indiana State Fair was just one of several weather-related stage collapses this summer.

This (Indiana) stage thing is going to be the “Great White Claim” this year. It’s going to be, “It’s the artist.” “No, it was the acoustical ceiling tile person.” “The guy who built the building because he didn’t build enough exits.” “No, it’s the table guy because the tables were too heavy to move out of the way.” It is just going to be everybody, and anybody involved.

At this point 45 tort claims have been filed alerting the state of Indiana of possible lawsuits. This won’t be resolved…

It won’t be resolved for years. I would say five or 10 years. The fact of the matter is that by the end of the lawsuits everybody will have been named. People are going to sue people that were sitting next to them because they (will say that they) couldn’t move out of the way fast enough or they barred them from leaving. There are going to be lawsuits on lawsuits. Someone is going to say, "I was 20 rows back and I didn’t even feel the gust of the wind when it hit the stage but I am so traumatized by what happened.”

Insurance companies have long been aware of the inherent dangers in outdoor events. But with the number of concert accidents seemingly on the rise, will they now re-evaluate their policies?

Eventually the insurance companies are going to be looking at a lot more of the stage plans and, maybe, they will require the stage makers to carry a larger load of the (insurance) risk. At this time, they (stage makers) will say, “We are building you this stage. We have insurance of $2 million. You are responsible to name us as additional insureds.”

I’m thinking that what is going to happen from now on is that, maybe, the insurance company will take a more restrictive look at the contracts to see who is going to be held at fault. They might even ask questions like, “What else is going to be part of this stage? Who is going to be responsible for doing this stage?” There are a lot of riggers that go on tours, and the riggers put up these stages. There might be more education in how to put these stages up.

Something like these stage collapses in the last year, I don’t know if it’s the sign of the (poor) economy or not. Maybe organizers have five men putting up a stage instead of 20. Maybe, they thought that someone would cost them too much to employ so they took someone right out of college who doesn’t have any experience at all--just college experience. I don’t know.

Under Indiana law, there is only $5 million available to share among the victims.

That’s going to go over really big. That’s another thing (to be examined). If I am an artist, and I know that this venue that I am playing is only going to be responsible for $5 million, should I increase my liability in case I have to be contingent over theirs? Yeah, you do.

If Sugarland was guaranteed their fee or a part of their fee, and that resulted in the organizers not stopping the show, that may factor in the negligence suit.

I think that when it comes down to it it’s going to be, “Was it the act of the weather?” Yeah, but there were also thinking human beings there that should have said, “It‘s far too tumultuous for us to have them go out onstage.” Even if they said, “You guys need to leave (the backstage area). We will try to do the concert when it (the storm) passes.”

C’mon they have baseball and football stadiums that stop play as soon as a storm starts coming. You don’t put a bunch of people in an exposed area with a huge storm coming. And was the stage built incorrectly? Probably. My house is probably built incorrectly. I can’t say until an earthquake takes it down. It’s a natural disaster but if my house falls, and the house next door, built by someone else, doesn’t (collapse) then whose fault is it?

Certainly, the weather has been erratic in recent years as well.

Yes, weather is a factor. But a few miles away, there was another event going on, and it was the Symphony Orchestra and organizers there said, “We don’t want everybody outside. You guys need to disperse.”

Now if that wasn’t Sugarland going onstage, and it was some little band from the Ozarks, they probably would have suspended that (Indiana State Fair) concert. But, because of who it was--that it was Sugarland; and the loss of money (for the fee), and the loss of (gate) revenue, and that they could never re-schedule that concert; I’m not sure, but I think that was a little bit of the thought process with the promoters of that concert.

[At issue is whether Indiana State Fair organizers responded quickly enough to forecasts of an approaching storm, especially since a concert nearby was canceled because of the weather.

Just 15 miles north in the suburb of Fishers, about 6,700 people attending a performance by the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra were evacuated from the Conner Prairie Amphitheater.

"We saw a storm that contained lightning dip south a little bit,” explains Tom Ramsey, the orchestra's VP and GM. “Once we saw that, I made the decision to stop the concert and send everyone to their cars."]

Sugarland is now being blamed for the Indiana incident, together with their "members, agents and employees.” Is it common that people working for the artist are being named in lawsuits?

That is more of a newer issue. In the olden days, what would happen was the policy would include a lot more on the bands. (Insurers) would include the representatives of the band in their definition of who is a named insured. (The policy) would actually say a band’s agents, their assignees and so on.

Nowadays, they (insurers) have pulled a lot of that wording out. Everybody was being sued together on one policy, and it was being responded to on that. Now the policies for the bands are no longer covering everybody, and they (managers, agents and employees) are finding that they are being called into these suits, and they have no coverage themselves.

Sue everybody--a scattershot approach.

I always say that if there’s a big enough loss, everybody in the world is going to be named in that suit. I don’t know if it’s a world-wide phenomenon, but it is definitely a phenomenon in the United States. I don’t know if it’s driven by lawyers who go after everybody. It’s almost as if the person is on the way to the hospital and they (law firms) have stationed a lawyer at the venue to approach (victims) and give a card right away to that person. I don’t know how it comes into play, but (people) do feel that everybody is entitled to monetary settlement for an accident.

I’m not unlike that either. If I was hurt at a concert where the stage fell or my daughter or my son were killed because of a stage falling apart, I probably would go in and sue everybody too. I don’t know if I would sue them because I want money or that “You took something of mine; I want something of yours” attitude or “I don’t know really who is responsible so I am going to sue everybody because they can sort it out” kind of mentality.

Insurance is expensive, and with the economy being bad, people tend to cut down on their insurance.

Yeah, there’s the attitude of “I don’t need that much insurance. It’s too expensive. Instead of carrying $20 million now, I will only carry $10 million.” So more and more, the different companies have less and less insurance because it’s cheaper. But, in the long run, it’s not cheaper in the event of a catastrophic disaster.

Particularly for the venue.

The way that I look at it is if you are going to have 20,000 or 30,000 people around you, plan for the worst. There have been claims that have been paid for something that has never happened--just allegedly happened, and (insurers) have paid.

You have been working in entertainment insurance since 1980. It seems that there is more at risk today.

Touring used to be more along the lines of, “Let’s have a concert. Everybody get together," type of thing. People would just put on the concerts. There was little thought toward the way that it looked or the stage they had or the type of equipment artists had. You put on a concert.

Now the touring entertainment business is a big business. It’s a big business that is driven by other businesses. There was money to be made, and anybody who could make money jumped into it (the concert businesses).

Now, I feel that the freedom that we used to have back when I first started doing insurance is a lot different. You see a lot more contracts. You see a lot more distribution (of insurance). Everybody has their particular niche. Back in the day, the band would get in their van and tour around, and they’d knock on doors of the venues, and the venues would say, “Sure, c’mon in. You can play here.” That’s what they did. Nowadays you have all different elements of touring. You have promoters, producers, personal managers, business managers, and the venues. So everybody has a part of (insurance) now where before it was a little more free and easy.

Years ago, there was basically insurance for performers, and for venues. It’s seems far more complex today.

When I started out, there were only two companies that insured artists, and bands. So we specialized in bands back in 1980. It was a little bit different. I can’t explain it to you. It’s the same risk. It is more technical now, and people sue for a lot more money.

After five died in Belgium when a storm swept in and toppled the stage at the Pukkelpop Festival, it was suggested that the economy had led organizers to book more unknown bands who may have overloaded the stage with equipment.

As an insurer, you would rather have someone going out on the road that has been touring for 20 or 30 years because they know how to tour. You have these kids who are going around in bands driving themselves from here to there. They are an unknown. They are a total unknown.

I had this one band that was brand new. They (the insurer) wanted to charge an astronomical amount of money for this band per concert. I kept saying, “But, they are new.” I was told they had done this and that and this is their music. Well, they started out at probably $250 per concert (for insurance) which is a lot of money. Then they were part of a bigger tour--a more organized tour with a promoter--and we were able to lower their per (insurance) concert rate when they were on that tour because we knew the mechanism behind the tour. As soon as they stopped that tour, and they went out on their own again, their premium went up. Let’s talk five years later, now that they have a track record. They might be one of the more volatile bands but their per concert rate is down to $80 which is normal.

[Five people were killed and more than 70 injured at the Pukkelpop Festival, near the town of Hasselt in eastern Belgium, after a stage collapsed during a heavy storm.

An estimated 60,000 people were at the three-day festival when the storm broke on Thurs, Aug. 18, 2011.

The Chateau stage at the Pukkelpop Festival was destroyed when trees were blown over in strong winds and crashed into rigging.

The Shelter stage was also damaged, but is not thought to have caused any injuries. Some giant TV screens also fell down.

Though Pukkelpop organizers have been officially cleared of liability by the Hasselt Public Prosecutor, the festival may still face significant losses.

Festival organizers had taken out civil liability insurance for the event, but the Public Prosecutor's determination that the tragic windstorm at the festival was a case of force majeure (greater force) means that the festival's civil liability insurance may not cover the full damages suffered during the storm.

Pukkelpop is also grappling with compensating ticket holders for the event. The storm struck on the opening night of the festival, and the event's organizers canceled the remainder of the event.]

As an insurance broker, you must seek to work with bands who treat what they do as a business.

Well, it is a business. It’s a huge business. Back in the day, there was an old broker that I used to do his underwriting when I worked on the carrier side. He would go to the concerts, and he would take a quarter out of every admission for the insurance. He would take those quarters, and he’d be there for the (tour) settlement, and the settling of the insurance. This was back when people just went on tour. There was no business behind it.

But now there’s big business behind touring. There are sponsorships. A lot of these kids aren’t going to make money from just their music. They are going to make it off the sponsors. The sponsors want to see certain types of bands. Live Nation has really changed the way that music is understood and played with big concerts. All promoters want a certain type of act. Any type of promoter, any type of venue, and any type of sponsor; they want to have something that emulates something good about them too. Nobody wants to be known for somebody who is killing their audience members or destroying their property or hurting people or being reckless or negligent.

Many changes in concert security came from 11 people losing their lives at a concert by the Who in Cincinnati in 1979.

Not only that, but there had been people killed at the Rolling Stones’ concert (including one homicide and three accidental deaths at The Altamont Speedway Free Festival in 1969) with the Hell’s Angel. That happened too.

[Three decades later, on the open concrete plaza on the west side of U.S. Bank Arena in Cincinnati, there is no hint of the tragedy that unfolded there on Dec. 3, 1979.

In the late '70s, the Riverfront Coliseum (as it was called then) had a reputation for unruly crowds. Fans reportedly threw fireworks during a Yes concert there in 1976. A year later, a seat-seeking crowd rushed a locked entrance before a Led Zeppelin performance, resulting in 60 arrests and numerous injuries.

The 1979 show was the Who’s first Cincinnati performance in four years. All of the tickets for the concert sold out in 90 minutes. The majority of tickets were for unreserved seats or festival seating.

As 7 p.m., the scheduled time for doors to open for the 8 p.m. show, passed, restless fans began pounding on the glass doors. But only a handful of doors were reportedly opened. In all, 11 people lost their lives that night. Each had suffocated in the stampede of the crowd.

After the concert, families of the dead and injured filed 33 lawsuits against the Who; Electric Factory Concerts; the city of Cincinnati; and coliseum management. The suits claimed negligence and sought more than $100 million in damages. All suits were eventually settled out of court.]

I think that now the difference is that there are today different people involved who take on the different segments of the risk. Like for instance, you were saying that people were crowding, and they were trampled to death (in Cincinnati). It was because they had decided to open the doors early. And, it was general seating. Everybody wanted to get in, and get the best seat possible. That was the general seating. And so, the insurance (companies) rewrote their policies based on that. If you had general seating, exclude it from claims arising from general admission, which was what it was called. Then everybody had to have a seat.

Pyrotechnics, the exclusion (in policies) was born by a particular claim or somebody was burned severely in the audience and filed suit. It was quite a big suit. I think that the person was looking up, and got something in their eye and went blind in an eye. So that spurred that exclusion.

Great White….

But that (exclusion) was before. You have to understand that Great White had a pyrotechnics exclusion on their policy but because of the public’s outcry, the insurance company which was Traveler’s paid it. They just paid it. They gave their $1 million. They just wrote the check, and that was it. They didn’t want to hassle it. There was public opinion. They just wrote it. That was one of the bigger pyros exclusions, but that exclusion was there years prior to that happening.

[Stricter enforcement of fire codes helped make clubs safer after 100 people perished during the notorious Great White show in February 2003, when a blaze destroyed the Station nightclub in West Warwick, R.I.]

When I first started (in entertainment insurance) there were no restrictions on who could do fireworks. I got in trouble once because--it probably was Metallica who was going to be playing in some open arena--and they had these flame throwers. They were not going to be far enough away from the audience for the insurance carrier to be happy to give their okay.

What finally happened was the fire safety people in that town came in, and they restricted them from doing it also.

So I was saved.

Now, insurance companies make you provide them with certain information that makes them feel comfortable enough to provide you with the coverage for what we call contingent pyrotechnics. There are also now companies who specialize in pyrotechnics. The have licenses, have bios, and can tell insurers exactly what they are going to do. They know exactly what the pyrotechnics are going to do, and how they are supposed to act. They have coverage now. So we are spreading the risk again away from the band.

I think the insurance industry has safened up going to a concert. Since I started 25 or 30 years ago, the safety elements have greatly increased. The insurance carriers have asked for more and more safety measures to be put in place. We went through the mosh pits, and everybody getting hurt there. They put in “no mosh pits.” The gist of it all is to have all of the entertainment companies who are insuring the same risk to also agree on these restrictions.

There are now multiple players involved in trying to share limits on a policy when a loss occurs.

Everybody’s insurance carrier is asking them to remove the risk from their client. So if you have a venue, the venue’s insurance company is going to want to have the promoter be responsible for their responsibilities as a promoter. Therefore, excluding coverage for promoting on the venue’s policy; therefore asking the promoter to add the venue as an additional insured for any losses that they may get named in due to the negligence of the promoter.

On top of that, the artists are sometimes asked to be an additional insured on the venue’s (policy). So everybody is sort of adding everybody else as additional insured in respect to their own negligence.

Trying to keep away from the liability or limit it.

Yes. Everybody is trying to give it away. It works for the most part. It does. If the band throws something into the audience, and the promoter’s contract says they are not allowed to throw anything into the audience and yet they do, the promoter, of course, is going to be named in the lawsuit; the venue is going to be named in the lawsuit; therefore everybody is added as an additional insured. Therefore their insurance carriers don’t have to do anything because they were not negligent until they are found negligent.

So if my band throws something into the audience, and it kills somebody and I’m the venue, and I get named in a suit, I might be held negligent because I should have had a screen or I should have known that this was going to happened and I should have anticipated it and should not have had the first 20 rows occupied--that kind of a negligence thing. You can always be pulled into a lawsuit but you try to remove yourself as much as possible.

That goes for personal managers, tour managers, and roadies too?

Everybody. Also sponsors became a big part of the touring industry. The sponsors give a lot of money to the movement of the tour. It’s not uncommon for some sponsors to give some of the bigger artists $20 million for their tour. Just to have the rights to have it as “The Pam Weiser Tour of the Rolling Stones” or for the Pam Weiser beverage served at the Rolling Stones’ concert dates--or for signage. So what is happening now is that the sponsors are also being pulled into these lawsuits too.

Sometimes the sponsors are responsible (for a liability claim). I had a claim recently where a sponsor had a (promotional) item and asked the artist to toss it into the audience, and somebody was injured. Now we’re going to battle with them (the sponsor) because they don’t want to be in the lawsuit. However, they told our artist to throw it into the audience.

One of the worst losses that I’ve ever had was from something being thrown into the audience. Some band threw candy, everybody dove for it, and the girl underneath broke her back and is paralyzed. She was the one that suffered.

Back in the day when I first started writing insurance, the reason why tossing of objects was excluded on most of the policies was because a band member threw something into the audience that caused somebody a tremendous amount of medical issues. The drum sticks or whatever being thrown into the audience, it doesn’t matter what it is, it’s a matter of how the audience reacts to it.

For a major act doing 30-40 dates, you suggest $20 million in liability insurance

Oh yeah. Well, what happens is that when our bands go on tour there are several things that go into play. The promoter starts to put together the itinerary; sometimes the sponsors will come in, and if you are big enough, they might say, “We will put up $20 million for this tour.”

For smaller bands just starting out, a lot of times they will go to a promoter and say, “We need to tour. We want to get out there. Put a package together.” So the promoter starts doing that. Then the band usually goes into rehearsals—we have to insure that rehearsal—and then, as it starts going on tour, there are other insurance issues—not just liability. There’s auto liability for the trucks moving all of the equipment, for the buses that are moving all of the people, limousines, aviation—however we are moving the artists.

On top of that, they have to start thinking of workers’ compensation and how much they are going to need on all of their crew members and musicians; and they have to determine how much equipment they are going to be taking. Usually, the rental houses will ask bands to insure their equipment. So we end up insuring their equipment.

There’s also event cancellation insurance.

Event cancellation (insurance) comes into big play. I would say that even though it seems to be a big industry, that not even 50% of the artists that go out even take the non-appearance (insurance). It’s very expensive. We take out more non-appearances for the older acts. The people who you’d think might not be able to continue the tour. But the funny part is that the losses are generally on the younger bands. The older guys, they know how to tour. They have toured for years. They get up; they take it. The younger guys that buy the non-appearance are usually the ones that have the claims.

Settlements for non-appearance tend to be messy.

Sure. Every time there’s a loss on non-appearance, I know that everybody says, “This company will get it paid right away. Tomorrow, I will get a check.” But there is always going to be a problem trying to settle it. It is always difficult.

In any settlement, an insurer has to look at timelines, and the decisions made up to whatever happened.

Yeah, it just depends. There is a lot on the line. Generally, you are looking at $150,000 to $750,000 that these people (performers) get as guarantees for concerts. Certainly, $150,000 is doing pretty good; $750,000 is probably at the top level but I have seen a $1.5 million (guarantee) for a concert, but that was outside of the United States. So there’s a lot of money at stake. There are a lot of issues that come up. For instance, if someone hurt their back, and they can’t continue their tour. Then they (the insurer) does some digging because they don’t want to pay $5 million or $6 million. So they go digging, and they find that back when you were 21, you were hospitalized when you fell off a ladder, and you hurt your back. But you never told us. You never declared that to us. Although you are 50 now, and your back is hurting, insurers will come back, and sometimes deny the claim.

So there are always issues when it comes to a lot of money, and non-appearance. God forbid that you should have a heart attack onstage. If you have never had any heart trouble, and you have a heart attack onstage, it’s the best thing because (insurers) can’t dispute it. You really had it. You are in the hospital, and there’s nothing you can do, and you never had heart problems before. Okay, boom, you are covered.

Some insurers won’t insure people who have had heart problems.

What they will do with the non-appearance, unless you are a total medical mess, they will carve it out. They can say, “Your right foot was broken 10 years ago, you still limp, and you can’t perform because sometimes your foot hurts.” So okay we will insure you for everything else except for your foot or any pathology leading to a missed concert because of your foot.

Do you do medicals?

Yes, we do medicals.

How about insuring someone with known addiction problems, whether alcohol or drug related?

Well, every application—and what we are dealing with on non-appearance as well as with medical, worker’s comp, life and disability coverage—on every single application—not worker’s comp so much--you are always going to end up with a question on the application to be signed by you about illegal drugs or prescription drug addiction.

So you either tell them the truth or you can lie.

If something comes up (without telling the insurers), you are denied coverage or you are not paid on the claim. As far as non-appearance, there is definitely a question on the medical that does address that issue. Sometimes on non-appearance, (insurers) will allow you not to fill out an application, but you have to say that you are in good health and there is no question about drugs at that point (in your life).

With films, that’s been an issue in insuring actors.

One of the biggest issues that I ran into was when I was working for an insurance carrier, and River Phoenix died of the overdose (in 1993). He was in pre-production (of a film). He was through with one movie (“The Thing Called Love”) and was in pre-production with another movie. We ended up having to pay something like $8 million. The insurance company sued, and went to court. The court came back and, basically, said, “You know of the risks of these types of actors. You know that they have drugs. You need to be aware of them.”

The insurance company had to pay.

We are aware that in Hollywood that actors and actresses and (music) artists do drugs and even though they have never done drugs before, and it’s not on the application, they do occasionally do it. So we lost that case.

With musicians, if they are known drug abusers, if they are known for that, I would say that their chances of getting any type of insurance that would cover that would be very, very small. (Insurers) will just carve it out. They will say, “everything else, except for addiction to drugs or illegal drugs or whatever.”

How in the hell does Keith Richards get insurance?

I’m sure that they have covered him over the years. But the thing is you can say, “The Rolling Stones have been around for 40 years, and they have only missed a handful of concerts because of illness, and not because of drugs.” So you can go back and say, “He was rumored to have done drugs, but he doesn’t do drugs anymore.” Or “he never missed a date” or “he only does pot or whatever.” The underwriters are human. So they understand that. They are not going to totally exclude everything; it’s a lot of money to them. Here you have a group that has this great touring record. So you are going to take that bet. It just depends on the group really.

How did you get into the insurance field?

I was born in Hollywood, and raised in the San Fernando Valley. My mother is a musician, and my father was a salesman. I grew up in a music world. I knew a lot about music, and I knew a lot about the recording industry because my mother (Phyllis Weiser) was a studio musician, and played with bands. She never did anything big, but she did back-up, rehearsal work and worked. She is a pianist and she also worked for the L.A. City School district as a music teacher.

She grew up in Hollywood with all of the actors and actresses. She went to Hollywood High, and hobnobbed with the Hollywood people. So I learned the passion for the music industry from my mom, and my dad, who was a sales person, taught me how to sell.

I first worked for my dad, and then I moved on. One day, I answered an ad for a company that was re-locating close to my house, and they said it was an entertainment based company. I went and interviewed and I got the job. I ended up working for a company that I would say was responsible for starting the entertainment insurance industry. It was called ANGA (American National General Agencies). We worked with different insurance carriers including Chubb, and Lloyds. We insured anything to do with entertainment.

Momentous recently launched its Nightlife Division, a dedicated insurance unit for DJs, performers, promoters, and nightclub owners.

Music is growing and changing with every generation so the insurance industry needs to change, and adapt too. DJs are being asked by clubs to provide their own insurance, and they had no place to go. So Graham (Graham T. Orleans) put together a lower cost program for the smaller DJs that gives them liability coverage as well as some equipment (coverage). What was happening was that DJs were going into clubs and leaving their equipment overnight, and then coming back to find that their equipment was gone.

Is cyber liability something the entertainment industry should now be taking more of a look at?

Absolutely. I’m not the expert in this, but what we have been trying to do lately is to package media—we call it media errors and omissions—which covers parties for liable, slander, defamation of character, intellectual property.

If you are on the radio or being interviewed, anything you say or disseminate across the airways, cyber liability does play into that. Cyber liability can include any social media out there. Anything that goes over Twitter, Facebook, MySpace and so on.

Artists say things that they don’t necessarily mean to say, and sometimes they are drawn into a lawsuit. It’s usually a legal battle, and that is what is expensive is the legal. We have, of course, paid a settlement because of the negligence of the artist, but a lot of times this coverage provides legal fees just to defend the allegation.

So, with our artists, what we do is put together a media which will include cyber liability as well as personal appearance, the music that they write if you are a composer, and any type of live performance that they might be involved in.

Employment practice liability is more common today as well.

Most bands are carrying that now for termination problems, and everything else, including for sexual harassment.

For groupies?

Yeah, it actually can. It covers third parties. We had a club which denied someone (entrance). The club owner said that they were ugly. They sued him and he ended up paying (the claim) on the employment practice liability coverage because the club had third party coverage.

So I can take out a policy insuring against a claim of bondage sex with a groupie on the road?

You can but you have to make sure she signs a form saying that it’s consensual.

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, and the London Times. He is co-author of the book “Music From Far And Wide.”


Industry Profile Archives:
Mick The DJ, DJ/Enterpeneur 04/30/15
Jeremy Lascelles & Robin Millar, Blue Raincoat Chrysalis Group 12/01/17
Joanne Abbot Green, CMJ Music Marathon and Film Festival 10/17/08
Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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