Industry Profile: Bob Roux & Mark Campana

— by Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Mark Campana, and Bob Roux, co-presidents of North America Concerts, Live Nation Entertainment.

A day before it was scheduled to brief Wall Street analysts on its third-quarter 2010 earnings, Live Nation Entertainment disclosed that Jason Garner, head of the company's Global Music division, had left the company, effective Oct. 29, 2010.

He was replaced by a trio of executives, Mark Campana and Bob Roux as presidents for the South and North regions in North America, respectively; and Rick Franks who was elevated to president of North America for talent/touring.

Campana, based in Chicago; and Roux, based in Houston, oversee booking, operations and venues in their respective territories.

The northern region—handled by Campana—comprises New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis, Pittsburgh and Indianapolis.

The southern region that Roux oversees comprises Florida, the Carolinas, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Texas, Phoenix, Las Vegas, Seattle, Denver, New Mexico, and California.

Formerly president of Live Nation Detroit, Franks remains based in the city overseeing touring strategies.

Campana, a Chicago native, was appointed to Midwest regional president for the company in 2005, assuming all activities in Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, Kansas, Minnesota and the Dakotas. He divided his time between Live Nation offices in Detroit and throughout the Midwest. In 2007, Campana relocated to the company's downtown office in Chicago.

After graduating from Illinois State University with a B.S. in Theater and Art's Management, Campana worked for Nederlander Concerts from 1980-1999. He was theatre manager at Poplar Creek Music Theatre in Chicago (1980-81) and the Greek Theatre in Los Angeles (1982); GM of Kingswood Music Theater in Toronto (1983-1989); a junior talent booker (1990-94); and head of booking for Chicago, Detroit, Washington DC, Cincinnati and Toronto offices (1995-99).

Prior to his appointment to president of North America, Roux was president for the Dallas/Houston/New Orleans region for the company, and also served on Live Nation Entertainment's Board of Governors for North America. As well, he was previously president of Houston-based Pace Concerts.

The executive shuffle came on the heels of a difficult summer concert season for Live Nation, characterized by slow ticket sales, and cancellations of several tours.

The shuffle has now come to signal a shift in company strategy where it is less centralized and has placed more decision-making authority in the hands of regional management—tapping further than ever into local market expertise in talent buying, marketing and promotion.

As well, there’s been a move in 2011 to try to lower ticket prices, and pay lower guarantees on major tours.

The changes seem to be paying off, as Live Nation’s live music business has had an encouraging rebound in 2011.

Live Nation Entertainment said Nov. 3, 2011 that its 3rd quarter net income inched up 1% though revenue from selling concert tickets fell.

How do you two work together? How does it work?

MARK: Pretty good so far. First of all, we work as a team in terms of policy. So if we are getting into a circumstance where we have to change policy or an approach—Bob and I tend to be very close—and we spend a lot of time talking about how it is that we would like to roll out a material policy related to the company.

Our business is broken up into two aspects. The first being the geography of it and the other being what we call national disciplines—the law department, the finance department, booking department and things like that.

For practicality, we have divided the geography of the company into north and south. I take responsibility for all of the offices in the north. Bob takes responsibility for the offices in the South in terms of direct reporting. Boston, Philly, New York, Detroit, Cleveland, all those report into the north, and I take responsibility.

So after we divided it up by the geography, we then took the disciplines of the business and we divided those up so that people that work in the company have a pretty good idea of who the boss is in their area of the business.

So Bob takes responsibility for running the touring area of the business. He runs our revenue management and a number areas of the business on a national basis. I take responsibility for the finance side—for the marketing, for the venues and the facility management.

Where does Rick Franks fit into this as president of North America, talent/touring?

MARK: He reports to Bob. He has two roles. Rick is the president of (Live Nation) Detroit, and responsible for Detroit, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. So he has a business unit that he runs, and then he also reports to Bob in his responsibilities related to the touring entities.

Mark, you are based in Chicago where Live Nation has a significant presence.

MARK: We do have a large footprint here in Chicago. It’s been built up over the years. Chicago is where I grew up before I hit the road to the various markets I worked in over my career. It’s great to be home.

As a Live Nation market, we do touch a lot of our key elements of the business, whether it’s the House of Blues or we have an 8,000 seat boutique amphitheatre (Charter One Pavilion) in the market. We have a 35,000-seater up in Alpine Valley (the Alpine Valley Music Theatre), and a 28,000-seater down in Tinley Park in the First Midwest Bank (the First Midwest Bank Amphitheatre).

Arthur Fogel (chairman of global music, and CEO of global touring, Live Nation) I kid him, he’s the biggest promoter in Chicago. There’s nothing that I can do that compares with multiple shows of U2 at Soldier Field; four and five nights of Madonna at the United Centre; and Lady Gaga playing Lollapalooza (2011) and then coming back and playing the United Centre. That global touring artist roster that Arthur brings to our market on a regular basis helps us immensely. But we do have a good footprint in this market.

Your relationship with Arthur Fogel goes back many years to Toronto when he was with Concert Productions International.

I worked for the Nederlanders. We built Kingswood (Kingswood Music Theater in Toronto). (As GM), I was Arthur’s competitor, actually.

Bob, being based in Houston, can you speak to the rebirth of the Gulf region following Hurricane Katrina in 2005? Did it take a long time for the region to come back?

BOB: That the market has come back. I can just tell you that a recent show (Dec. 3rd) on a Saturday night with Jay-Z and Kanye West grossed over a million dollars. We played the New Orleans Arena. It was one of the most rocking nights that I have ever been at. We had people from all over the region. Their closest dates were in Houston and Atlanta, where they opened the tour. It was just a very highly, highly successful show.

What was it like for business in New Orleans in 2005 and 2006?

BOB: We never stopped doing shows. Obviously, there was a period of time immediately post Katrina where New Orleans was at a complete stand-still but once the arena was back—U and O (University of New Orleans) opened a little bit later than the New Orleans Arena—but once the buildings were back open, we were back open for business, and programming the market like we always have.

It certainly is still the kind of market that you are careful during certain times of the year whether it’s Jazz Fest or Mardi Gras—things when there are other competitive forces there. But for the most part we do really well there.

Bob, Live Nation’s broke Louis Messina’s heart by scooping up Nickelback from him. Still friends?

BOB: (Laughing) Louis (founder/principal of The Messina Group/AEG Live) and I are quite good friends. I have probably been out to dinner with him twice in the past month. We are getting ready to put our next Nickelback tour on sale next month. We love the guys in the band. They have been great partners with us. This is a band that just puts on a terrific show. They have a great catalog of music. We’re looking forward to a very successful 2012 tour with them.

[Nickelback signed a three-album/three tour deal with Live Nation in 2008; then estimated to be worth between $50-$70 million.

Under the deal, Live Nation acquired 12 separate artist rights to feed its global distribution pipe. These include touring, tour sponsorship, tour merchandise, tour VIP/travel packages, secondary ticketing, recorded music, clothing, licensing and other retail merchandise, non-tour sponsorship and endorsements, DVD and broadcast rights, fan club, web site and literary rights.]

You both were working with independent promoters when SFX Entertainment rolled up the North American concert market in the late ‘90s. Bob, you were president of Houston- based Pace Concerts; Mark, you were working with the Nederlander family.

How disruptive was the period following the consolidations?

MARK: Wow. I have no perspective on it because it’s not like I have been involved in a couple of roll-ups. So I don’t know what an easy roll-up is compared to a difficult roll-up. I think you had a number of entrepreneurs who made decisions to sell their businesses to a Wall Street company. Bob Sillerman had a design on what he wanted to do. You had a number of entrepreneurs with very diverse opinions, and diverse backgrounds. I guess in that sense it was interesting to watch the diversity, and how we came together as a group.

For some people Larry, it was a terrific environment and it allowed people to revel and use their skills; and for others, it was an environment that turned out that they weren’t that interested in.

For myself, it offered me a lot of resources and opportunities that I wasn’t necessarily seeing in my days with the Netherlanders. As a partner in Nederlander when we sold the business, it was terrific. But when we made the decision to sell our business to SFX, and ultimately when we ended up working for Clear Channel, you went from being the decision maker to having a vote. For some, that was difficult. For others, it was a terrific environment to work in.

[The consolidation of North America’s concert market began with SFX Entertainment's acquisition of New York promoter Delsener-Slater Presents in 1996. Under Robert Sillerman, SFX spent about $2 billion buying promoters and other entertainment properties, including snapping up 11 regional companies and 82 venues.

SFX acquired Pace Entertainment in 1998 in a $130 million deal that included Pace Concerts, Pace Theatrical, Pace Motorsports and the company's 13 amphitheaters. The following year SFX acquired interests in seven venues and other assets from entities controlled by the Nederlander family in a deal worth $93.6 million in cash.

Sillerman then sold SFX to Clear Channel Entertainment for an estimated $4 billion in 2000. In 2005, Live Nation was formed from a spin-off of the subsidiary, Clear Channel Communications.]

Several of the promoters involved have told me that it was a difficult transition.

MARK: They may have a better recollection of it than me. You had a lot of really talented entrepreneurs that were brought together. Most of them (had) a sole proprietorship or a very small business. All of a sudden, they were blended into a big room of people who all did similar things. I don’t know. I just don’t remember it being such a bad situation.

BOB: I don’t remember it being problematic at all. There were a lot of people in the late ‘90s that were happy to have a bit of security and were excited about being able to work toe-to-toe with some guys that had been former competitors.

Some promoters later felt sidelined within Clear Channel Entertainment.

BOB: When you get a wide variety of personalities, and they are all involved in trying to lead and move the company, you are going to have disagreements from time to time, as in any organization. I would say that the vast majority of the team got together and worked fine.

MARK: Bob articulated very well about the environment that we worked through. I would add to that a lot of the same people that were initially acquired by Bob Sillerman are some of our top executives. Whether it’s Rick Franks, and Wilson Howard from the Cellar Door (Cellar Door Concerts) as well as Don Law and Ron Delsener. Bob from the Pace side, and me coming from the acquisition on the Nederlander side. We’ve got a lot of those folks. There are a few who may have decided to move on and look for greener pastures; but there are a lot of those people here. I don’t know if I would have ever had the opportunity to work with Rick Franks the way I have over the past 10 years if we were in the old paradigm.

Frankly, the Clear Channel days, that is pre-Rapino; and that is the dinosaur days of our company. The Mays family still sit on our board and have a terrific relationship with our business, but this is the business that Michael Rapino built as opposed to the business that Bob Sillerman built. That’s the way I look at it.

[Canadian-born Rapino began his career in 1988 at Labatt Breweries in Toronto as director of marketing and entertainment. Through Labatt, Rapino began working closely with Michael Cohl's Concert Productions International, then the largest concert promoter in Canada.

Upon leaving Labatt, Rapino co-founded Core Audience Entertainment, a leading concert promoter in Canada. CAE was acquired by CCE (then SFX) in 1999, creating SFX Canada.

After running CCE's Canadian operation, Rapino ascended to the head of its European operation in 2001.

Rapino became global president of CCE’s music division in 2004; and CEO of Live Nation the following year. Rapino was the 5th head of CCE's music division since 2000. When he became head, Rapino quickly set about revamping the company. He spent millions in shed improvements, and made attempts to lower ticket prices, and removed many of facility fees.]

When Michael Rapino took over, the sentiment within the company the company was, “We really need someone to lead this company.” Within a year, he seemed to bring the company together.

BOB: It also became a concert company whereas Clear Channel was very diversified with their entertainment offerings, and what they pursued. We became a strict concert company and divested those non-core assets very quickly; and we got into global expansion mode very quickly.

MARK: Michael brings focus that this industry has not seen in the past. We have been in an industry of today; and Michael has made it an industry of tomorrow. He really has. And when you have a leader instill that type of thinking, and that type of strategy, it is pretty easy for the masses to gravitate toward it. By all means, we became a stronger— and I think more vibrant—business when we became more focused.

With such a huge chunk of the concert market, Live Nation has received no small share of the blame for the sector’s troubles from the media, and from internet blogger/critic, Bob Lefsetz.

How do you cope having a company you have worked to build up being so vilified?

BOB: One, I don’t read it (bad press). On one occasion when that particular writer got particularly antagonistic, I was sent a few copies of his daily blog. It made me extremely upset. We have a great company, and people here work very hard every day. We certainly have made mistakes, but we have tried to fail quickly, and learn from those mistakes. The greater majority of the time, we are doing something that we can all be proud of.

MARK: I don’t know if I can answer it better. I will say that it absolutely wears you down when you see someone who is attacking for no other reason than to attack.

But when Ticketmaster and Live Nation merged to create Live Nation Entertainment in 2010, there was also enormous criticism in the newspapers too.

MARK: Agreed. We take our business very personally, and it would be difficult to not have it have some effect. But what I find most important, and allows me to get beyond it is that I probably have in the company right now 15 to 20 or maybe even 25 people who started their careers working for Bob and I years ago. They have great lives, with wonderful homes, and are experiencing being part of the music business. All I have to do is think about a few of those people and pfffff the bad press is way back in the background in my mind.

I’m with Bob in terms that you don’t let it (criticism) get to you at a certain point. You don’t let it fester. It’s out there, yeah. It wears you down a little bit, but I look at the people working for us who have great jobs and great lives and are enjoying the music business, and I say to myself, “We can’t be all of those things that they are saying we are because look around.”

A weak economic environment, poor pricing guidelines, misjudging the appeal of certain acts, and questionable marketing strategies can be said to have negatively impacted Live Nation’s concert business in 2010.

In 2011, there’s been a bit of a bounce back for the company. How did that happen under the same economic scenario as 2010?

MARK: Well, where to begin? I would say that first of all the approach that we took to buying talent this year…we went in with a very basic plan, and that was “can we do fewer shows and make more money on the fewer shows?” So being a bit more selective and in the booking process, we were trying to avoid situations where we were forcing square pegs into round holes. So we were probably a bit more selective.

Replacing the one size fits all strategy of centralizing buying and booking and marketing while tapping more into the local markets?

MARK: Yes, absolutely. And Bob, maybe we should share a little bit about one of our most important tasks for (Michael) Rapino in the first year here was getting that local office, and the local promoter re-established as an incredibly important part of our business; the focal point of our business as a local promoter rather than a national promoter.

The challenges of 2010 may have precipitated some of these changes you mention. But don’t you also think that some of the changes developed because Live Nation is naturally evolving. This company is not that old, really; and the way it came together was by patch work.

BOB: Do you mean an evolution of back to the basics?

Evolution of the company overall.

BOB: Right, yes. Certainly.

There’s certainly been some impressive talent match-ups this year with Live Nation.

BOB: Also part of the differences between 2010 and 2011 is that we knew in this economy that we needed to create more value. So whether that was pricing our shows correctly from the start in order to provide value to the fans or creating great packages like we did with New Kids (New Kids on the Block) and Backstreet Boys, and Britney (Spears) and Nicki Minaj , Sade and John Legend, and Journey/Foreigner. All of those things helped us to enjoy the successes that we saw this year.

MARK: When you look at the differences, absolutely (there were differences including) the booking approach, and involving the locals at a higher level in terms of involvement in the booking process, but it boiled down to value. Value at the ticket price, and value at the packaging.

When we looked at our product, Bob and I were always looking at what will be the value proposition. In the past, promoters in previous economies probably were a bit more cavalier in how they approached it. Bob and I took a very, very conservative approach. We didn’t go through a recession. We really re-set the economy for (Live Nation) North America. And in re-setting the economy for North America in terms of how much people are making; how many people are going to be unemployed; we felt that we needed to look at our value proposition and make sure that we gave greater value. That means pricing the tickets properly at the beginning.

Secondly, we make sure that wherever possible—and we worked very close with the managers and the agencies —that wherever possible, it was saying, “Let’s jumbo-size. Let’s bring more value to the package.” You mentioned some of the best highlights of that. Sade and John Legend, great value. The New Kids on the Block with the Backstreet Boys, incredible value.

When we had a great package coupled with the right ticket prices at the beginning, we felt that we had some success. That’s why we had the marketplace embracing concerts again. It certainly had nothing to do with Bob and me in terms of being managers. It had to do with the industry putting better packages out there and we, as an industry, looked at the ticket prices differently.

You and Bob overhauled Live Nation’s discounting strategy which had been heavily criticized for cheapening the concert marketplace. Discounts now can be opening weekend, with tickets going up after 72 hours.

BOB: Certainly, we want to reward those loyal customers who buy early by giving them the best price point; making sure that they are aware of it and are taking advantage of it. It worked pretty well. It is something that we will continue to emphasize for 2012 as we move forward.

Did the concert industry also hit a pricing threshold in 2010? Promoters used to work out a guarantee with an act and their representatives, and then figure out what tickets would sell for. It seems there’s more of a concern upfront today of what the ticket price should be, and then figuring out what the guarantee should be. Has the paradigm changed?

MARK: Every show is different but you make a good point in that generalization. The one thing that I would tweak on your representation of the process is that we (now) talk with the artists about the ticket prices from the beginning (of the booking process). (This year) Bob and I as well as Rick Franks and a number of our people sat with the key agents, the key managers and talked about ticket prices, long before we were talking about a specific band. we were talking about ticket prices in general. Bob, when did you do your round robin with the agents?

BOB: Probably after the first of the year as we were getting into the buying season. We sort of set forth what we thought was the proper value proposition and we wanted to make sure that we had buy-ins from the agents and the managers that we worked with.

That hasn’t been the way this industry has worked.

MARK: It has not. In some levels it was, but generally speaking you are right. We went to the industry to talk about ticket prices and what we could do together in order to make sure the venues are filled with full-priced tickets. We also have a number of terrific vehicles that we use with floor packs, and mega tickets and things like that. We talked as a group; whether it was with Rob (Light) and Mitch (Rose) and the folks at CAA (Creative Artist Agency); or Geiger and his team over at William Morris (Marc Geiger, VP, William Morris Endeavor) or any of the major agencies.

We also went and dipped into some of the management companies. We wanted to make sure that we weren’t barking up the wrong tree.

Bob, wouldn’t you say that the concepts were embraced from the get-go? I don’t remember ever anyone saying, “No. We want higher prices.”

BOB: I think that generally people got scared of the results of 2010, and understood that the logical way to proceed and turn the business around was to communicate a bit more and, if anything, make sure that we were creating those value propositions from the very beginning.

This past year was probably just the beginning of what you are going to see as a long-term trend of artists really trying to properly price in or to maximize attendance which will give them a much longer sustainment of their career. In 2011 and 2012 (bookings), we are already seeing that. It is basically a continuation of the platform that we started this past year.

There’s long been criticism that high ticket prices are the result of greed by acts, managers and agents. True?

MARK: Artists, much like athletes, are always going to look at their career in terms of where are they in the cycle. If they feel that they are at the peak of the cycle, they are going to try to maximize their earnings. I don’t know if that has necessarily changed. Athletes are always going to want to make more. Performers, artists, entertainers are always going to want to make more. I don’t use the term “greed” because I don’t know if that necessarily applies to everyone. It may to some. But I think that when people are at their highest earnings potential they are going to push as hard as they possibly can to earn as much as they possibly can. I again say that it’s also relevant to athletes. They are looking at it as, “How long is my window of opportunity, and how to maximize my earnings during my peak periods?”

Many major artists don’t have the recording revenue they once had. So performing has been more important as a source of revenue. That may have driven up guarantee demands too.

BOB: I think the other thing worth noting is that there is a kind of new regime of headline acts that are much more attuned to their audience, and what they can afford as they build their careers. If you look at acts like Black Keys that are really breaking, Katy Perry on her first arena headlining tour, the Foo Fighters, Jason Aldean, you’ve got this group of relatively new artists that are capable of selling out arenas, and selling out amphitheatres, and they are approaching (touring) at very value-oriented ticket prices. I think that we are going to see more and more of that as we go along. There are just tons of these acts that are starting to break and other acts that are learning, “Hey, if we keep those ticket prices reasonable, we can do big numbers.”

So many country acts have come up through the ranks including Kenny Chesney and Brad Paisley and more recently Jason Aldean and The Band Perry.

MARK: There’s greater sensitivity (for development) there for sure.

BOB: And, it’s working.

Country seems to do more artist development than other genres.

MARK: I would think that the star system in country, the way that they place artists on packages, and help nurture the artist up into a star status, is admirable. They really do have a terrific system. When we talked about packaging; and when we talked about how much value can we get on that Journey show; and who should be on the Sade show, we quite frankly are taking a page from the country book where they have always made sure—wherever possible—to have a strong package. It seems as though the next generation is always bubbling under as that main support act in country; whether it was (Rascal) Flatts as a support act for Toby (Keith) or (Brad) Paisley as the support act for Flatts. You can just go through the list. They do a great job of (packaging) and we have taken a page from their book when it comes to finding value in our pop and rock shows.

Although rock doesn’t dominate radio anymore, there still were a lot of rock shows in 2011, including by Linkin Park, Metallica, and Bob Seger. Rock isn’t heard on radio as much these days.

MARK: Radio is obviously going through an evolution of its own. We’re losing alternative rock stations regularly in markets. That’s difficult for us. We are having to quite frankly find other ways to market our shows. That is where you run into a lot of the social platforms that we are building. There are the new marketing programs that we have instituted because the traditional means of promoting a concert unfortunately is not as effective as it used to be.

Many of the top shows in 2011 in the U.S. were with rock bands from the ‘70s. Few of those acts are heard on radio anymore.

BOB: But they have toured for a lot of tours, and they have built up a loyal fan base because of those great live shows. Every time you see them, they deliver.

Bob, you made that point while giving an award last month to Journey. You read off their tour schedule from the ‘70s, and it was like, “Wow.”

BOB: I know.

[On Nov. 10, 2011 in New York, Journey received Billboard’s Legend of Live award, a lifetime achievement award that Bob Roux presented by reciting the tour routing of the band’s first month of a nearly year long tour in 1978. It was impressive: 22 shows in 26 days. "Shit Neal," Roux said, "I can see why you went through so many lead singers."]

The cornerstone of artist development remains tour, tour, and tour.

BOB: And tour internationally. That was ’78 that I was referencing for that Journey tour. I’m not sure in those days that acts had it in their business plans to try to break worldwide. Nowadays that is in everybody’s mind from the beginning. We have had a lot more bands going to South America. Certainly every major tour is making a few stops in Mexico. You look at how the Canadian business has evolved. It is a great market. Everything internationally in Europe right now, even in Eastern Europe, is developing. Bands today don’t have as much time on one given record to concentrate on the United States whereas acts like Journey or Metallica would do a 90 city run in the U.S. on one record cycle.

There are many acts that have little mainstream visibility like Deadmau5 who is everywhere. A lot of electronica artists are very popular. Live Nation just started an electronica division, Electronic Nation. That is a scene that has greatly evolved.

MARK: It is pretty incredible what is going on with electronica. I was at an NFL game recently where they were playing a Deadmau5 mix during a station break in the stadium, and I thought, “Boy the days of playing Bon Jovi hits may be behind us.”

Yet, ask a dozen of your friends if they have heard of Deadmau5, and you will draw a blank.

MARK: You need to talk to your daughter’s friends, Larry.

In October, Andy Hewitt and Bill Silva came into the Live Nation fold. Are they part of the concert puzzle that you needed in the California market?

BOB: Andy and Bill, we have worked with as friends, competitors, and partners for many years, so it was a natural fit for us. We are very happy to have them as part of the Live Nation team.

What didn’t you have in that market previously?

MARK: I think that (the deal) brought an incredible couple of promoters for starters. With the history that Bill and Andy bring; the talent that they bring; and the intelligence in both concert promoting, in general, and in Southern California; they bring great value. They also are the in-house promoter for the Hollywood Bowl, and their involvement in buying talent is immense.

[On Oct. 25, 2011 Live Nation Entertainment announced an agreement with Los Angeles-based concert promoters Andy Hewitt, and Bill Silva in overseeing the booking, marketing and promotion of the company's concerts in Southern California and Las Vegas.

In 1991, Silva and Hewitt formed Andy Hewitt & Bill Silva Presents to produce pop and rock concerts at the Los Angeles County-owned Hollywood Bowl.

Over two decades, the pair have brought a wide range of talent to the Hollywood Bowl, including: Elton John, the Rolling Stones, the Eagles, James Taylor & Carole King, Paul McCartney, Andrea Bocelli, Cher, Luciano Pavarotti, Coldplay, Radiohead, Roger Waters, Dave Matthews Band and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.

Silva continues to operate Bill Silva Entertainment which consists of a concerts promotion and touring division, Bill Silva Presents; and an artist management division, Bill Silva Management.

Hewitt is also a key player in the Las Vegas entertainment scene, promoting shows at the Palms Casino Resort in partnership with Live Nation, and the Maloof family, among other ventures.]

Are Andy and Bill keeping the Hollywood Bowl bookings to themselves?

MARK: You know, I’m not sure. Bob, I am going to rely on you, given that it’s your territory. I’m not sure if we have actually dealt with that. What I am getting at is that I don’t believe that it’s public knowledge yet in terms of the particulars of their deal. So I would be somewhat reluctant to get into the particulars.

BOB: I think that the right way to answer your question is to say that Bill and Andy will continue to book and operate as they have at the Hollywood Bowl. We are happy to have them as their adjoining business as part of Live Nation now.

A decade ago Internet marketing was 2% of the company’s annual budget, and grew to 7% by 2008. What percentage is it at today?

MARK: That is an area that I am responsible for. I don’t have a specific percentage. But I will tell you that the numbers that you have quoted on the previous years are spot on. I believe that our spending has grown.

Social networking obviously is a bigger part of your business?

MARK: It is absolutely a much larger piece of it. There are some opportunities through partners that we have been able to put together and ultimately grow new avenues for promoting. For example, the Facebook relationship that we have developed over the past year. What we have been able to do with Facebook is on a couple of levels. One, in regards to a person’s address book and their list of friends, we are able to have them purchase tickets, and then to advise everyone on their friend list that they are going to the show. That’s incredible.

If you could have thought in 1985 that someone could buy a ticket and you would go through their rolodex and call each person and tell them that you were going to show, think how incredibly powerful that would have been for marketing.

With Facebook now, we literally do that now. It’s done in seconds within them making the purchase through Ticketmaster. It’s an unique relationship exclusive to Ticketmaster where we have interfaced with Facebook to make sure that when a purchase is made—that is if the person opts into that—all of the people on that person’s Facebook list of friends find out that they are going (to a show).

We have found out that through tracking sales that we have been averaging about $5 in incremental ticket sales for each one of those listings. So when you buy a ticket and your use your Facebook lists or interface with Facebook, we are going to sell another $5 because you did that listing. That’s incredible—when you can look at an avenue of advertising and tie back incremental sales. It is just an incredible opportunity.

Secondly, we’ve developed the Concert Calendar where if you are going to a show or there is a show that is of interest to you and your friends, you are able to post it and people can see what is going on in your musical calendar or your entertainment calendar.

Those sort of tools with Facebook allow us to market and promote like we have never marketed or promoted before.

We are working now with a number of different social platforms, whether it’s Twitter or all of the different social platforms that are out there to see what’s the next generation. Larry, it moves so rapidly that we have a team of people here (Live Nation's Live Analytics group launched earlier this year.) One of the values of being a big company is that we can invest very high levels of resources into new opportunities and new projects. We have a social marketing team of about 14 that are responsible for nothing more than making sure that all of our shows are reaping the benefit of the highest level of social marketing intelligence that is out there. It changes quickly and we want to make sure that we stay on top of it.

But (social media) has changed the advertising and marketing of shows. You can get into the marketplace (deeper). The most important endorsement that you can give on why you should go to a show is a friend telling you that they are going. It is incredible that we can now use technology to make sure that you know that all of your friends know that you are going to that show. We find that as an absolutely incredible tool and (it’s) something that you are going to see us growing by leaps and bounds as we go forward.

[This month Live Nation acquired BigChampagne, a Los Angeles-based company that collects and analyzes online digital media data. The acquisition is expected to enhance Live Nation's ability to provide relevant content to consumers and business intelligence solutions for entertainment businesses and brand marketers.]

What are the challenges of working with Prince? He did 21 shows at The Forum in the Spring.

MARK: The only challenge that we have working with Prince is trying to get him to do more shows because he’s so popular. Look at the incredible business that he has done. He is an incredible artist, and when you reach that level of star status or that level of importance within communities, you are afforded greater latitudes to make decisions as you see fit.

Prince tends to make decisions a little later than what an average artist would define when they are going to play, and what their touring plans are. But the fact of the matter is that virtually every decision and every direction that Prince takes in his career is something that he is deciding on his own. Steve Herman (president of artist services at Live Nation) who handles the day-to-day with Michael Rapino, who is really the account manager with Prince, they probably have greater insights to what it’s like working with the artists on his tour. Bob, your experience out at the Forum I recall, was incredible.

[Prince’s 21 show-stand began on April 14, 2011 at the Forum in Inglewood, California.]

21 shows, Bob? That’s impressive.

BOB: Yep, he’s been doing incredible business; putting on incredible shows. You just spent a few minutes talking about how fans are able to talk to each other virally much more aptly than they did previously. Prince goes on in any of these cities and people hear about what the show is like. In the case of Los Angeles, we started with, maybe, two or three shows. And as he played off shows, the response was so great and the blogs were so positive that we built on a couple of more (shows) and it just built into a frenzy in Los Angeles.

Few people can name a Prince album in the past decade, but he remains a superstar.

BOB: An incredible catalog of hits. An incredible musician. Maybe one of the best all around musicians and vocalists that I have ever seen.

Tell me the buzz you both get 15 or 20 seconds before the lights go down on a big show. What’s the feeling watching something about to happen with a show you and your staff may have worked on for months and months? What goes through your mind?

MARK: I believe that when we accomplish what we are set out to do, we create with the band, the times of your life.

You are giving me a business view. Give me a personal view.

MARK: No. listen. When you look at a fan and you can see them genuinely having one of the times of their life, and to see some of the excitement that I have been able to experience…

I remember when we did a Pearl Jam show and it was snowing at an outdoor venue and I was watching all of those people in their snow suits and mittens and snowmobile boots. You want to know something? They had the time of their life. That was in Alpine Valley, and we had a freak snow storm.

[“‘Welcome to the ice bowl,” joked Eddie Vedder at the Oct. 8, 2000 show after “Hail Hail.”’ Wrote a fan later in a blog. “I was at the Ice bowl and it was insane. Couldn’t feel my hands or feet by the end of the show. The venue was selling hot chocolate and actually ran out of it. The band had heaters placed on stage. Only show that ends with RVM, as far as I know. I think the band was too cold to play anymore songs!”]

My point is that just before those lights come down, and you can see that excitement in the fans eyes, if it is a really big event and the band delivers what they are going to deliver, it’s unbelievable.

But I have as much fun watching people leave the hall as I do with the few minutes before an act goes onstage. You see people who are exhausted. You see people who have grins from ear-to-ear. They have experienced one of the times in their life. That’s what we try to do. To create an event where people can escape for a few hours and enjoy one of the times of their life with their friends. I get quite a rush from those fans looking at them before the show; but I probably have as much fun and get excited leaving the hall. That’s when you see that you got the job done.

BOB: That feeling that you get as the lights go down, the audience is ready and is anticipating the band, I think that’s one of the reasons why I got into the business. I was an avid concert goer through my high school years. I loved going to concerts. I loved being part of the crowd. I think that probably is one of the things that helped propel me on a course to where I am today. I still love it.

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, and the London Times. He is co-author of the book “Music From Far And Wide.”


Industry Profile Archives:
Mick The DJ, DJ/Enterpeneur 04/30/15
Jeremy Lascelles & Robin Millar, Blue Raincoat Chrysalis Group 12/01/17
Joanne Abbot Green, CMJ Music Marathon and Film Festival 10/17/08
Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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