Industry Profile: Ty Roberts

— By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Ty Roberts, chief technology officer, Gracenote.

Thankfully for us all, digital media pioneer Dale "Ty" Roberts was far more adept at computers while a teenager than playing trombone.

While an enthusiasm for music remains, it’s been his fascination with computers and with artists that have underscored his remarkable career in entertainment and informational technology.

One of the inventors of enhanced CD technology, and credited with producing the entertainment industry's first enhanced CDs, Roberts has been lauded as one of the fathers of modern digital entertainment.

Roberts is the chief technology officer for Gracenote, the global provider of music recognition, and digital entertainment services.

Gracenote, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, is a global leader in embedded technology, enriched content, and data services for digital entertainment solutions within the internet, consumer electronics, mobile, and automotive markets.

Gracenote powers such leading services as Apple iTunes, Yahoo! Music Jukebox, Winamp; home and automotive products from Alpine, Panasonic, Philips and Sony; and mobile music applications from Samsung, Sony Ericsson, KDDI (Japan), KTF (Korea), Musiwave (Europe), and others.

The company has offices in Tokyo, Munich, Berlin, Seoul, and Taipei with worldwide headquarters in Emeryville, California.

The Gracenote Global Media Database, with patented technology developed by Roberts, is the largest, and most comprehensive music database in the world with 130 million tracks and eight million albums.

The database, featuring music and video metadata and licensed cover art images, processes more than 10 billion queries per month, and powers smart phones, PCs, automotive systems and HDTV from most of the leading brands.

As Gracenote's chief technology strategist, Roberts provides technology direction, and oversees the creation of products and services.

He joined Gracenote in 1998 when it was still called CDDB—created by Steve Scherf and Ti Khan—which acquired ION Music, a multimedia and music technology company that he had founded in 1993. CDDB was renamed Gracenote in 2000.

ION Music was a leading provider of enhanced CD production tools utilized by recording and multimedia development companies. While at ION Music, Roberts produced the industry's first enhanced audio CD titles, including David Bowie's "Jump" and "Headcandy" from Brian Eno.

While working as a contractor with Apple Computer from 1989 to 1994, Roberts worked with music multimedia pioneers Steve Nelson, Tony Bove, and Marc Canter to help music artists evolve music into an interactive platform.

He wrote the first computer controlled, high quality frame grabber to digitize video. He also connected Apple’s Quicktime team to music artists to get music videos as examples. Among the artists participating were Todd Rundgren, Michael Penn, Juliana Hatfield, and the Residents.

Prior to working with Apple, Roberts was a founder and senior manager of LightSource, a software development company that produced multimedia and graphics editing software.

Previous to LightSource, he was a senior engineer at Pixar, where he created several Apple-based music applications including, "Studio Session" and "Jam Session."

Today, Gracenote is well positioned to play an important part in the success of Cloud-based music. The company powers Omnifone, Pandora, MOG, Beyond Oblivion, Spotify and other services which utilize its content and technology to both fuel and enrich their user experiences.

Gracenote recently unveiled an audio fingerprinting technology to be applied to the television experience that is based on audio content recognition.

The Gracenote Entourage platform, slated for general availability in the spring, will enable consumer electronics (CE) devices to identify movies, TV programs and music by simply “listening” to short sound clips. By making its extensive database available, Gracenote in turn gives consumers access to related content, including advertising brands and links to on-demand services, where they can purchase, stream or download additional content.

Meanwhile, Gracenote’s MoodGrid technology now lets automobile drivers and their passengers find and play songs to match their mood. They are able to navigate music collections and launch mood-based playlists with one-touch or simple voice commands.

What’s your take on the recent protest over the Stop Online Piracy Act?

It certainly was interesting watching the web sites go off. The reality is that I think that it’s (copyright legislation) over for now. Maybe, it will come back in the future. The intention was the right thing, which was to try to do something about piracy. Nobody has a problem with that. The question is, what happens after that? It is a difficult problem. Seemingly, this kind of issue is right on the cusp of how do you allow innovation, and the expansion of the internet at the same time protecting peoples’ creative works? It’s a problem.

[Outrage over the Stop Online Piracy Act legislation introduced in the House of Representatives triggered a one-day blackout on Jan. 18, 2012 by Wikipedia's English-language service, and an estimated 7,000 smaller websites. Protests and petitions led to the bill being effectively derailed. The legislation would have allowed the U.S. Justice Department to target legitimate sites where users share pirated content.]

Other than this, has the music industry finally got its digital music strategy right in 2012? Or are labels and music publishers still leaving money on the table and missing opportunities?

Let me say that they aren’t leaving enough money on the table. The problem is that their business model has been predicated on people needing to license access to their catalogs. So for a (subscription) service like Rara (Omnifone’s that needs to start up and have a business, those guys might have to pay tens of millions of dollars in licensing fees just to get enough licenses together to launch the service.

If you look at this in the past as how CD retail would work; to get some CDs in your stores, you called up a distributor; and you may have paid thousands of dollars to order a couple cases of CDs to put in your store. The entry cost for becoming a retailer of CDs was very small. So the problem is these very, very high fees—that the digital costs of being a retailer is very very high; and therefore they (labels) are choosing to have a small number of large retailers, instead of thousands or tens of thousands small ones. The internet works more like the tens of thousands or millions of small ones than the large ones. It’s great to have a deal with Google, but there are a lot of other people other than Google.

Until iTunes, the labels missed years of opportunity to bulk sell music on the internet.

Yeah. They were always afraid that they would end up with a dominant player who would monopolize their business.

Of course, iTunes does monopolize their business today.

Which they ended up with because they didn’t work with anybody. Somebody figured out how to do it without their help. They did have lots of time to try and figure it out, but it’s been very hard. The guys that are running the record business now are my peers. These guys understand what to do, but those guys weren’t in charge, even five years ago. Let’s see what my peers do now. Give them their five years and see what they can do. Things seem to be improving. I am impressed with what has been happening with the new music services that are online. They are getting to be very exciting.

iTunes set the template for the music industry to follow.

It did. But only as a template for the file download business. Not a template for streaming or enhanced services or any of these kind of things that are coming. It’s a fairly simple product offering in the sense that the current products are organized for storage-based media players. When you are talking streaming, you have a cloud service now; but it’s not really what these other streaming guys are doing. Let’s see what happens.

Unlike films in which distributors or film companies generally own all of the rights, music has numerous rights holders, including labels and publishers.

That’s a huge problem for anybody building a service because tracking some of those people down is expensive. It makes it a real problem. It seems that there is now movement in the world to simplify that licensing regime. I believe that it is going to take another 10 years for that to happen. I think it will eventually happen both internally in the U.S,. and externally. That’s been really a huge challenge. The product itself is so complicated (to license). We know about it at Gracenote just from doing our lyrics product. We had to be in touch with all of those little publishers.

How did you do it?

It has been a long time since we have sent a fax; but we learned how to send faxes again because a lot of these (publishing) guys are only reachable by fax. Really a publishing entity can be essentially a guy in a house with a post office box. We had to contact all of those people. It took us years and years and we spent a lot of money chasing people down to P.O. boxes in the Cayman Islands.

Lyrics can be readily copied, and are used on so many illegal sites.

That’s one of the problems for the lyric business itself. Piracy is a huge issue. There were a lot of sites that compete with the large licensors of ours that were illegal. Maybe they (our licensor) were the #3 site; and the #1 and #2 sites were the illegal guys. There wasn’t much that could be done about that because these guys were often in countries outside our jurisdiction.

It’s a real tough business and the best thing that we can do with the lyrics is to provide a mass of them in a simple way to these applications. So what has worked for us is taking the lyric database and putting it on a search engine for our large partners like AOL and other customers with legal entities that worked. Those are all legitimate businesses. They are not able to go and license from pirate sites. But (the lyric business) has been a change. I really wish there weren’t as many illegal lyric sites.

Publishers still don’t allow lyric sites to let people “cut and paste” lyrics from the site onto their own devices.

The problem with us is that we’d have to go back to all of these little publishers and get the approval. Early on in the lyric business there were so many fears about doing it that a lot of these restraints came about. We would like to get rid of those. Maybe in the next round of lyric licensing, we will be able to do that.

Can today’s artists reach audiences to the same degree as artists in the past?

I think that they can, but they need help. What has been working recently—though I’m not a massive fan—has been television. It has come back to the music business. People are connecting. They are connecting with the personality. It’s not just the music. There’s a person behind the music. That’s what these TV shows are about. Yes, you want to see an amazing performance which I would say that some of these people are providing—there are amazing performances there—but you also want to see their (artists’) personal interaction with each other, with the judges, and with the other people on these shows.

The world is crying out for a better way to understand who artists are; and what they are really about; and to be able to communicate with them. That mechanism is somewhat coming with Facebook and other means; but I do really feel that there could be a better music product that allows the music artist to connect with the people who are listening to music, and facilitate a much better interaction than there is today.

The thing is really finding out a way to bring the exciting world of the personalities behind the media—be it movies or music—how to bring what they are really about to the experience of enjoying their music because the music is only one part of what music artists do and where they live, and/or what they look like or who they hang out with and what they are interested in—what they like or don’t like. That is all a big part of what they are too. That is not really reflected in the current experiences very well.

That interaction is really important to the fan experience.

As much as people like live music, for most people it is really hard to see artists these days. I’m lucky that I live in San Francisco, and there’s good music clubs of a reasonable size that I can go to and see a lot of music. But that’s rare. There’s only a few cities in the United States where that exists. Other than that, you are stuck with these arena (shows), and very few artists can fill an arena. So there’s not very many of those. That really is a problem. Being able to see artists live is not fantastic, and it’s not helping that much. With some artists, live also isn’t really their thing anyway.

Gracenote recently partnered with Twitter, The Echo Nest, and Rovi in order to scale the distribution of Twitter account data for musicians for integration in consumer-based apps. What will be the outcome?

With some artists, with their Twitter thing, they don’t actually do anything on it themselves. It’s where their fans can tweet. But with other artists, their Twitter is their ultimate way of communication. When you are playing a song from somebody, let’s see what they said on Twitter recently or let’s see what someone else said about them recently. That’s real time information about them (the artist). That’s interesting. A person plays a song, “Oh my goodness, Bono is really upset about this thing in Florida. I didn’t even know about that. I should go and check that out.” Whatever that is. A lot of that stuff comes to Twitter as a mechanism. It used to be that these guys (artists) would put it on their blog, on their website, but Twitter is a much more effective mechanism than that these days.

[With the new partnership with the three music data services, Gracenote, The Echo Nest, and Rovi, Twitter developers can now work with partners to integrate @handles from thousands of musicians and tweets into their music and entertainment services.]

Last month (January) Yahoo! Inc. reported that revenue and forecast sales fell short as web users are now spending less time on Yahoo’s pages, instead favoring such social networks as Facebook, and search results generated by Google.

With many of the music services relying on advertising, if we are seeing a bleeding of advertising, is that going to endanger growth of these services?

I think it’s a danger to those who do banner ads which is what their (Yahoo!) business is mostly about. Basically, only an idiot clicks on a banner ad. The reality is that if their whole business is based on that…I have tried not to click on one of them for years. Every now and then I will. It takes a lot more for me to click on a banner ad.

So the reality is that if you are a social network, and it’s really an integrated experience with the brands and the products, that’s what works. That’s what people are going to do. I actually think that it’s a very interesting trend where people who are going to advertise to me, make sure that it is something that I actually like to do; make sure it’s in a context that I am willing to accept. Not just some flashing thing on the corner of a page.

Obviously, there’s an ebbing demand for display advertising, advertising overall is exploding on the internet.

If you are in the advertising world, the number of places to place an ad is infinitely expanding. Every device is going to be connected. What that means is that the cost for placement is going to go way down because there’s a million outlets. But how do you get people to look at it (an ad), and how do you get them to actually care about it. I’ll tell you that music—if you look at advertising over the last 50 years—music works pretty well. That is why music has always been part of advertising, and a lot of things. So music is a great thing and film and music and celebrities and stars are the kinds of things that I will call the basics of advertising which, maybe, haven’t been as well reflected in the internet where it has primarily been about search and banner ads.

Data has become a hugely valuable commodity as companies seek ways of making money from users' web habits with ever more targeted adverts.

There’s a lot of smart people in the advertising business, and I think that there’s going to be a big change in the next few years as people start to figure out how to really reach the consumers.

With its use of meta tagging, Gracenote certainly provides enhancement of the musical experience.

It comes from even the definition of the name of the company. We are kind of like that intro note or that embellishment that adds a little spark to the music. We aren’t the music itself. We are kind of the lead in. We are kind of the thing that tells you about the music, and gets you up to speed. Originally, yes the database was only music and, of course, we have a vast information set for music now global. I think it’s somewhere around over 100 million tracks of information (100 million tracks, actually). It keeps growing all of the time.

What’s happening is that most of the data now comes from record labels—feeds from the labels—but really with digital technology, music has been expanding to the far reaches of the world. So before, maybe, we weren’t having the most master (list) data of African music; well now, Africa is online. People are using these technologies in these regions and we are getting all of the information in there and capturing it all over the planet. A few years ago, we had most of the American and western world (music) and we have really started to go globally. There’s music of all different kinds and languages in there; and people are helping us editorially. Teams that we have sift through that (data) and improve it, collect it, and we have kept working. It is definitely the largest database of its kind in the world.

The music experiences available today via Gracenote hearken back to the music projects you did with CD-ROMs. The experience of viewing graphics and data was there when people started listening to music decades ago.

Yes. It’s been my goal to get back to that, actually. The (experience) curve—I hate to say it—has not been that friendly to music business because when the internet came along, music—certainly on CDs—had really nice packaging, and great information, and there were these box sets. Even though the packaging of CDs was smaller than an album, people were at least provided with a sense of graphics and a visual presentation that went with the music. Back then, you had music television (including MTV) providing the visuals; providing the video component. The internet came along and, unfortunately, the pipe for the internet was so small that when digital music first arrived on the internet it was reduced to purely the sound and the textual information about the music.

The internet really acted as a funnel.

Yes. And if you think about what I was doing with those music artists was that I was making rich, multi-media interactive music albums.

You worked right in the studio with the artists like Brian Eno and David Bowie.

Absolutely. The idea was to create some kind of a multimedia record album. But we couldn’t squeeze that through the internet until about now—until the last couple of years. So what has happened is that we had to add things back to the musical experience. Gracenote started with the textual information. Then we added the album cover artwork. That turned out to be interesting. People wanted to see the artwork and, of course, the creation of these iPods and things that had graphical displays helped a lot with (the popularity of) the album artwork. The album artwork went from the iPod into phones and into cars.

With these new automobile (systems), the album artwork comes up right on the display of the car. Ford, for example, has this. Mercedes as well. It turns out that you can, as a human, pick a song by the album artwork faster than reading the text. In fact, reading the text is kind of dangerous. So putting up a little grid of 6 by 6 of album covers, you can click on that a lot faster. You know what album that is just by looking at the picture. Your brain is a lot better at that than trying to read a scrolling list and trying to find it.

In-car music interfaces had been limited by technology and safety issues but that has changed. But there’s still a long way to go.

What has happened is that we have made it safe to access music services and music collections inside your car. All safely. We got there with voice (voice-activated devices) and other things. But we are just now starting to put multiple people in the car into one useful context inside the cars. This is one of the big challenges right now is that when there are three people inside the car, a lot of these systems are designed to take into account (only) the driver.

But in my car I have my wife, and my 12-year-old son in the back seat. All three people are in the car, and all three people have different musical tastes. How can we make music that we would all listen to? How can I give control periodically to my son because he likes to control things? I don’t want him in control for every song but, maybe, he can pick every third song. How can I devise a system that does that? He would love to subject us to the latest hip hop thing which we will listen to for a song if my wife can subject him to some classic R&B or soul hit which she will listen to for a song. That multi-user experience is what I want. My goal is to get the kid in the backseat to take his hoodie off his head, take his earphones out of his ears, and participate in the car. That would be a miraculous thing.

Instead of having the isolation of wearing earphones.

That’s exactly it. I travel off the freeway and I see these kids slumped against the rear windows everywhere I go.

[While in-car music interfaces have been limited by technology and safety issues, new voice-activated devices have entered the market, breaking open the possibilities for tuning in music while in the vehicle. Gracenote’s Entune system, for example, lets drivers and passengers use voice and touch commands to connect to their apps, and to interact with music on their mobile devices.]

As the internet provided a thin pipeline for music delivery, the music industry was very nervous about the conversion of CDs to music files.

That’s correct. They didn’t really understand how to make money in a world where it was a world of singles. We had people spending on CDs which is a fantastic product that I would even buy when I was just a programmer without any money; I would spend $50 or $60 a month on new CDs. That was amazing when you think about it.

What happened is that that (sales) number went down and down over a period of time because people suddenly had all of these other things. It was just not the internet and music; there were now all of these other things that they could do—video games, for example. Today, you can spend all day just playing around with Facebook. So the reality is that there just became a lot more competition for peoples’ time; along with the fact that the record (album) fractured into singles along with the fact that the exposure of consumers to new music went away to some degree. MTV became a channel about reality TV shows; and there were issues with the concert business and ticket prices. There were so many factors that really made music less competitive.

Also consumers took control. The recording industry tried the wrong strategies to encourage consumers not to copy music across the internet—like the Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) and so on. The labels were too controlling. The consumer basically said, “We will work out flexibility ourselves.”

Right. That’s correct. Eventually, I believe that right now that consumers are changing a little bit. They are going to realize that with these new music services that are out there now that the flexibility that they get from those is far greater. The problem is that it requires a re-education process for consumers about how to expose and really enjoy music.

The technology that Gracenote is providing…our goal is to make it so that we can help broaden their tastes, and help them find the music that they want automatically because once you give someone a 26 million song streaming catalog, the average person knows about 10 artists. What do they do then? Even with me, and I am a big music fan, and I know a lot. I have access to these services; and I am often at the gym going, “What am I playing today?” It is surprising that unless you have this (information) technology to assist you—and I will call it your education process—you will play the same old stuff or you won’t play anything at all because that (limitation) is kind of boring.

[Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) began as forum in 1998 composed of more than 200 IT, consumer electronics, security technology, ISP, and record labels with the purpose of developing technology specifications that protected the playing, storing and distribution of digital music. The strategy involved implementing a secure digital watermarking scheme that would allow music to be tagged; and an assurance that SDMI compliant players would not play SDMI tagged music that was not authorized for that device. However, the alliance between recording and technology industries failed. SDMI became inactive in 2001.]

I have a friend in the U.K. who complains that he has 50,000 songs in his computer and has nothing to listen to.

Exactly, and that’s the problem. You need to have this technology. That’s why we have really gone down the path to understand what mood are you in? What are you doing? Are you at the gym? Are you driving to work? Are you trying to go to sleep? Are you trying to wake up? So if we can basically figure out what the consumer is actually doing, then we can start to look around, and say, “A-ha, the last time you went to the gym, you liked this upbeat dance music. You need more ABBA.” We can figure out what they should play.

That’s what Gracenote’s MoodGrid technology is all about?

That’s what MoodGrid is really about which is trying to remove the concept of trying to pick an artist and a song and replace it with, “How do I want to feel?” The system has access to your profile because it can see, for example on an iPod when you play a song. It sees all of the songs that you play. Every time that you play a song on the iPod, it increases a little count in there. So we know if you really like the B-52s and you really like this or that song. We can see that behind the scene and then we kind of ask you how do you feel and try to figure out from how you feel, of the things that you like, what you should experience. That’s kind of how it works.

How does MoodGrid technology deal with the listener information that it gets?

The way that we get the information is that we build a computer-listening algorithm that basically runs across the audio and computes all kinds of different perimeters. What key is this music in? What kind of instrumentation is it? What’s the tempo of the music? Those 32 separate little factors that we compute in there; those factors over time end up describing the music by the feeling and the mood of it—and it causes us to compare on a track level. (Sifting through) tracks of tracks which is not possible to do with humans.

[Mood-based features have begun to become a growing part of digital music services. Rara’s customization by mood is somewhat comparable to Pandora’s personalized streaming, although Rara users are also able to search for individual songs as well. Spotify recently introduced its own radio function that offers streams of music designed to a user’s taste.]

Gracenote Entourage, based on audio content recognition, allows CE (consumer electronics) devices to identify content so content-related information can be provided.

That is really about taking technology that we have and moving into the realm of enhanced experiences for video. What is happening is that the new wave of home consumption of media is to have a second screen device which can be your mobile or it can be a tablet or your laptop, probably—and you have it in the room with the TV set or with the audio system. You push a button on that, and what it does is that it turns on a microphone that listens from 6 to 15 seconds. Then that little sample of audio is converted to a fingerprint and the fingerprint is sent to our server and we come back and go, “Ah-a you are watching ‘Mission Impossible 2’ and you are 3:10 seconds into scene four of “Mission Impossible 2” and this is what is happening. The ‘Mission Impossible' guy is coming down the side of the building, and now there’s a big explosion.” That’s the kind of information that we are starting to put together for video content including film and television shows.

Gracenote Entourage is using watermarking along with fingerprinting.

Yeah. There’s two ways that this is being done today. One is with watermarking which requires you to change the content. We also do fingerprinting and the fingerprint doesn’t require you to change the content which is really good because you might want this application to work with this DVD that you have. That isn’t going to be changing anytime soon. The only things that can really be watermarked are things that come out now or things that you have in a file and haven’t consumed.

Watermarking doesn’t go backwards?

Watermarking only goes forward. There are other problems with watermarking not the least of which is that it has to stay in the whole chain. It can’t be perturbed.

[Gracenote’s automatic content recognition (ACR) technology consists of watermarking and fingerprinting. In the first case, something is inserted into the audio or video content, and then discovered by an agent sniffing for that insertion; in the second, content is examined at some post-production point, the results of which are sent to the Cloud for later matching.]

Watermarking and fingerprinting are important for anyone trying to figure out consumer behavior—say, advertisers.

That’s right. So what I can say about it is that in the video space people are a little bit less sensitive about this. We will see how it goes but we support by ways of doing this and we have done projects with both.

What fascinates technology people like you about music?

Well, I guess that I would say that it’s because the people who do music are interesting people. I think that is the core of it, that they are interesting people. They make music but they also go places and they play with other people and they do things and they say things. The reality is that lends itself to wanting to communicate with people through a lot of different means.

For me, it has always been about enabling that communication channel—from the artist to the fans or the fans back to the artist. Somehow, allowing fans to better understand what the artist is doing and allowing the artist to better understand what people like about what they are doing.

Did you ever play yourself?

I do play horns. I did play in bands, but I wasn’t good enough. I picked the wrong instrument. I played trombone when I was a kid. I was good at mathematics so my entry into music was writing software programs that would let people put notes on the screen of the computer. I wrote some of the very first music intonation and editing software for musicians to use to make music on a computer. Although myself I was not a good musician, I was good enough to figure out things. I could read music; and I could make an (editing) tool that would let people put it into a computer. That was my entry point. Once I had made this editing tool, lo and behold musicians began using it; and lo and behold when there were bugs they would find out how to get to me, and would call me up and make me come over and fix it for them.

You worked on several Apple-based music applications while at Pixar.

Yes, I did do some things there. I was the Mac guy at Pixar. I went to Pixar to learn computer graphics. The company that I founded after Pixar, LightSource was kind of a computer graphics company. We ended up doing computer software for Apple.

You did Studio Session and Jam Session.

That's correct. Studio Session and Jam Session were these original music authoring and playback software packages. And yes musicians used them. Todd Rundgren used it; as did an art band in San Francisco called the Residents.

Bertelsmann Music Group created the first interactive record label in 1993 after acquiring a 50% interest in ION Music which you founded a year earlier.

Yes, Bertelsmann bought about 50% and put five million bucks into the company. That is what allowed us to publish these CD-ROM projects. We got that money and then we went and worked with Todd (Rundgren) and David (Bowie) and Brian (Eno) and a bunch of other artists making these interactive record albums. It was all going fantastic until the internet came along. Then no one wanted anything to do with the disc.

When I looked at the experiences that were on the internet at that time, they were purely informational, which was great because you suddenly had real time information, but they were not rich graphically, and there was literally (little) or no sound whatsoever. So that really limited what I could do with recording artists. If I couldn’t play sound, that was going to be a big problem. And, if there weren’t graphics to go with it, that wasn’t what I was interested in doing. I decided that I would go into the information business. That’s really where CDDB/Gracenote came about. We started out with textual information about music. That worked great and eventually as we get to 2012, lo and behold the internet is broadband, and I can do any kind of graphic thing that I can think of.

Many people working with CD-ROMs then weren’t all that impressed with the internet’s content capabilities.

If I was going to make a CD-ROM record album, I realized that I don’t want to put the CD-ROM stuff on the actual CD. What I want to do is put it on the internet and have the web page recognize, and control the audio CD—so that we are linking the audio with the web page. That’s actually where the idea of recognizing an audio CD came about; and the idea of the content being in the internet and naturally the core of what Gracenote is and what the CDBC service started out doing. So, it all did come from the same place. It was just frustrating to reduce music to text for about five years (due to limitations with the internet).

What music do you listen to?

I am a classic rock kind of guy. I am a massive Pearl Jam fan. But I also like electronic music. I have pretty broad musical tastes. I like music artists of all kinds. Country music artists. I just find music artists to be interesting people.

Where are you from?

I am from the San Francisco Bay Area. I was born and bred here. I was very lucky that I was here as a high school student when the computer industry started. I went to the Homebrew Computer Club meetings (an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuits, and information) and I met Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak (of Apple) and Bob (Bob Marsh, a founding member of the Homebrew Computer Club). I bought a computer from them (Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak) when I was a teenager.

What model of Apple computer did you first purchase?

I tried to buy an Apple I, but they ran out of them. I bought an Apple II (introduced on April 16, 1977), and I wrote games for that. With 16K bytes of RAM.

[Apple was established in 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak, and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976, and was market-priced at $666.66.]

Did you put money in Apple stock? You would have done well last month.

(Laughing) I had many opportunities to have Apple stock and I have never owned any of it. I bought a couple of iPhones this Christmas for family members. The iPhone, and the iPad continue to be the gift of the gift season.

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record. He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, and the London Times. He is co-author of the book “Music From Far And Wide.”


Industry Profile Archives:
Mick The DJ, DJ/Enterpeneur 04/30/15
Jeremy Lascelles & Robin Millar, Blue Raincoat Chrysalis Group 12/01/17
Joanne Abbot Green, CMJ Music Marathon and Film Festival 10/17/08
Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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