Industry Profile: Michael O. Crain

— By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess MediaWire)

This week In the Hot Seat with Larry LeBlanc: Michael O. Crain, Owner of Crain Law Group, LLC.

Athens, Georgia attorney Michael Crain represents music and film-affiliated clients in matters involving intellectual property, music law, publicity rights and trademark law, commercial transactions, and civil litigation

In the contentious legal world of federal and state litigation in the United States, he’s a specialist in procedure, including discovery practice, motion practice, and jury and bench trials; specifically focusing on trademark, copyright, and publicity rights strategy, enforcement, and litigation.

Among his set of current clients are: Frank Sinatra Enterprises, Nat King Cole Estate, Peggy Lee Estate, Humphrey Bogart Estate, Gary Cooper Estate, The Farrah Fawcett Foundation, and Danny Kaye Estate.

In 2005,Crain achieved national prominence in law entertainment circles as the lead plaintiff’s counsel in a complex copyright, trademark and publicity rights action brought by the Jerry Garcia Estate against the national restaurant franchisor, Moe's Southwestern Grill for the unauthorized use of Garcia’s intellectual property rights.

Other clients in the case, whom Crain came to represent, included the estates of John Lennon, Frank Sinatra, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Marley, Barry White, George Harrison, and Miles Davis.

The small staff Crain works with on a daily basis, for both transactional and litigation matters, include an attorney, Cash V. Morris; and his assistant/paralegal Deborah Barnes. When necessary, on large litigation matters or cases filed in other states, Crain associates with local counsel experienced in intellectual property or entertainment litigation.

Crain graduated Juris Doctor from the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia in 1992; and received a Bachelor of Business Administration--Banking & Finance degree from the University of Georgia in 1989.

What exactly is your role with your clients?

I would say that, in a nutshell, my practice is helping the rights holders of these kinds of legacy estates protect--really protect--the legacies under their charge in the marketplace. I help prevent infringements or I deal with infringements of their intellectual property rights, and help them with transactions going forward where licensees or business partners want to engage in legitimate business that utilize the intellectual property rights of my clients. They (estates) screen out what they are interested in doing; turn down what they are not interested in doing; and I’m really helping them do that, and do any business going forward.

When you first meet with members of a celebrity’s estate what questions do you ask?

My first question is, “What are your goals? What do you want to do? What are you looking for?” If we find that there’s a match, and I can help them, the next thing is defining who owns the rights. Researching who owns the rights that are at issue. Who owns the master recordings?

Also finding out what rights are involved with those master recordings?

Correct. Does your artist own any publishing? If not, who owns it? Can you terminate prior transfers, and get publishing back? Where are you in negotiations with the record label, if at all, on digital sales? Are you with the label on music streaming because, at least as today, the future of music sales seem to be with streaming and downloads.

The music landscape is definitely changing.

Physical product has died out. It is all becoming digital and streaming.

What else do you ask about?

I’m also finding out who owns the publicity rights. Is that situation clean? Based on documents they (the estate) have, probate documents, has that been cleaned up already? Are the rights clearly defined? Are the family members all in agreement about those rights? Are they in agreement in going forward with what they want to do with the business, and in their goals, and so forth?

It’s really lining up the landscape. Understanding what rights are out there. Who owns them. Who controls them, and finding out if there is a consensus in moving forward in what they want to do with them in the marketplace, and what efforts they want to take in projecting those rights in the marketplace.

As you know, under the 1976 U.S. Copyright Act, the author of a recording has the right to terminate the original transfer of copyright to the record company 35 years after that transfer. But “author” isn’t defined in the Act. Labels are arguing that they are the author, that the artists who created the works were employees rather than independent contractors, thus rendering the recordings works-for-hire.

Correct. That’s a really big issue right now for artists who put out recordings in 1978, 1979, and 1980. Those are the current issues.

The issue has yet to be tested in court in the U.S.?

I don’t know if any decisions have come out really taking that issue head on, but plenty of people are heading to court on that issue. I’m now in a dispute over that with a particular client with a particular record label. Without giving you the names of who either are, we think it’s crystal clear that my client is the author--the creator--of the recording, and the record label is taking the position that it was a work-for-hire and they were the author or creator. We are just getting into that dispute now.

[Under the 1976 U.S. Copyright Act, the author of a recording has the right to terminate the original transfer of copyright to the record company 35 years after that transfer. If a recording was created and released in 1978 (the first effective year of the current copyright law), the author can reclaim that recording this year (2013), subject to various notice provisions.

However, it is unclear at the present time who will be defined as the “author.” At some point, a court will have to define the word “author” in this context unless there is legislation enacted by Congress defining the same.]

In essence, labels are arguing that artists were hired to produce music for them, and that the copyrights in the works were the label’s to begin with.

Still, as you know, labels usually had artists pay all recording costs.

In this particular case, all of the recording costs were recoupable out of my client.

How do labels explain charging recording costs under work-for-hire?

I’m still waiting on an explanation that is logical.

Also there were so many additional costs charged back to the artist.

And more, including breakage fees.

It’s noteworthy that with the advent of the CD, major labels took the breakage clause in older artist and production contracts, and transferred it to a new media clause.

I have yet to hear a logical explanation for that.

Are celebrity estates more vulnerable to infringement?

I’m constantly surprised to hear legal departments at very reputable, publicly-traded corporations not understand what all of the rights are that are necessary to be secured in an advertising campaign. I’ve heard general counsels within Fortune 500 companies say to me, “Well, we’ve got the copyrights to an image what else do we need? We felt we had everything before we started using this image in advertising.” I say, “Well, that’s part of what you need. It’s not everything.”

What do they need?

They need permission of the individuals within the photographs, if the jurisdiction requires it. The interesting thing about publicity rights, which makes it more complicated than some of the federal laws, is that it is governed by state law, not federal (law). So it can vary from state to state, even if a state recognizes post mortem rights of publicity, rights can vary among the states that recognize it. Like the term of years that it recognizes. The scope of the rights it recognizes. There are some states that do not recognize post mortem rights of publicity, but luckily under The Lanham Act —the federal trademark statute in the United States—there are claims to make regarding false endorsement, and false affiliation for deceased celebrity estates even if those celebrities were residents of jurisdictions that do not recognize post mortem publicity rights. It can get fairly complicated.

[The phrase Right of Publicity is attributed to Judge Jerome Frank in Haelean Laboratories, Inc. v. Topps Chewing Gum case in 1953. The Right of Publicity can be defined as the right to control the commercial use of an identity—a person’s name, voice, likeness or image in order to prevent a third party from using some aspect of that identity which has market value for a commercial use that the third party should have to pay for.]

Various state courts have grappled with the parameters of the Right of Publicity. Certain states don’t allow sound-alike impersonators following the 1998 case of Bette Midler against the Ford Motor Company.

Correct. The Bette Midler case is a very famous case. There’s a similar case. A Tom Waits case (against Frito-Lay in 1992) which is a very important case in the field. Most companies recognize that when they want to engage in an advertising branding campaign or some merchandising deal that not only do they need to get permission of the copyright owner of the image or music, but they also need, in most cases, to secure the rights of the celebrity; of the performer.

As well, they have to clear the music publishing rights if music is involved.


Are estates of celebrities targeted by infringers?

It appears that way. It appears that some infringers believe that if person is dead, “I have free rein.” I constantly see infringers take liberties that I could not imagine that they would take with living movie stars or recording artists. Unfortunately, often times, there are estate rights in the marketplace that it appears that nobody is watching, which is extremely unfortunate. I think as the world becomes flatter and business is more international with internet marketing, digital marketing, and digital sales, borders seem to becoming less and less important. That puts the onus that much more on these estates to be watchful of the marketplace because, often times, if you don’t protect your rights, and you let people infringe them at will you run the risk of losing them (rights).

A musician with an active career would also seek more extensive damages for an infringement, including for loss of record and ticket sales.

Yes, and all of my clients place a market value of their intellectual property as it is used in the marketplace. If people steal a Ferrari, they have to be willing to pay for that Ferrari. They can’t come back and say, “Well it didn’t cost you anything.” Legitimate companies pay significant money to be associated with these estates. All of my clients feel that they owe an obligation to their partners in the marketplace--legitimate licensees--to police the marketplace, and stop infringers.

What do you think of the preemptive legal strike by Robin Thicke and co-writers of “Blurred Lines” against right holders of Marvin Gaye’s “Got To Give It Up” and Funkadelic’s “Sexy Ways” in seeking a declaration of non-infringement by a court?

It is not an unusual tool in intellectual property litigation. I was involved in a situation last year where we claimed--on the behalf a client--that we thought that a commercial act was an infringement. Before we knew it, the defendant filed suit in federal court claiming that what they did was not an infringement, and they wanted a federal court judge to make a ruling that it was not. So there are reasons why companies would risk that, and put themselves really as a defendant to begin with by asking for a declaratory judgment that what they did was not an infringement. There are various reasons why people would do that.

[Robin Thicke’s summer hit “Blurred Lines” might have been inspired by Marvin Gaye’s “Got To Give It Up” and Funkadelic’s “Sexy Ways” which apparently led to the folks owning the rights to those songs making noises about suing Thicke and his co-writers.

Thicke, along with "Blurred Lines" co-writers Pharrell Williams and Clifford Harris, Jr., filed a lawsuit on Aug. 15, 2013 in U.S. District Court in Los Angeles requesting a ruling that "Blurred Lines" does not infringe on "Got To Give It Up." The lawsuit also requested a similar judgment with regard to another accusation, by Bridgeport Music Inc., that "Blurred Lines" infringed on George Clinton's "Sexy Ways."

In an interview with TMZ, Gaye's son, Marvin Gaye III said, "We’re not happy with the way that he went about doing business let alone suing us for something where he clearly got his inspiration from at the least."]

Quite an aggressive legal tactic by Robin and the co-writers..

It is as aggressive a defense as one could take, but you may do it if you think the plaintiff is going to file in a jurisdiction that may have a little less favorable climate then you may want. You may want that preemptive strike, and file it (a lawsuit) in a jurisdiction that you think may be a little more favorable of a legal climate. There are all different reasons. Or you don’t do this threat. I don’t know all the issues or motivations here, but I can see how one would think that being a huge hit, you may want to do other things with it, and you don’t want this threat of litigation tainting the value of something that you created and you feel strongly that is not infringing.

So they (lawyers representing Thicke, Pharrell Williams and Clifford Harris, Jr.) may want to clear the air, and the attitude may be, “We would prefer to weather a small storm now than a potentially bigger storm later” even if they think they can prevail in both. So everybody has their own reason for doing it. It’s not that uncommon, but it is a very aggressive defensive position to take. But it’s not that unusual for people to do that.

Dance music brand Ministry of Sound is suing Spotify in the UK High Court for copyright infringement claiming the company has refused to delete users’ playlists that copy its compilation albums. The case will hinge on whether the order of the songs can be copyrighted

That’s a new one for me. I don’t know where the listings came from or where they originated with the plaintiff in that case. I would have to do research before I could give an opinion whether a playlist is copyrightable. I guess the short answer is I don’t know. I also don’t know if they (Ministry of Sound) are simply claiming copyright infringement or if there are some other claims being made. I don’t know if they are raising it on UK or EU law or if there’s some US law being claimed because Spotify is based here.

I could have a whole conversation just on Spotify. I think that artists are tremendously underpaid on Spotify royalties, and they didn’t have a say on it. I like the idea of Spotify, but not how it is playing out in practice.

How about Apple’s iTunes.?

Well, I love Apple products. I use Apple products. I think they are the best in the world. What they have done to the music industry is very interesting. There are arguments that it is extremely positive, and there are arguments that it is extremely negative. It certainly better than people stealing the music, and I hope that Apple sells a million of my clients’ records. I like Apple.

Apple takes a sizable chunk of revenues from the music being sold on iTunes.

They do. And I think a download is a license. It’s not a record, and I think it should be treated by the labels with a third party license. I think that Apple treats it as a third party license.

But compensation to artists is not as a third party license.

Correct. Apple kind of sets the prices, but I believe in a free market and, if somebody can invent a better more profitable mouse trap for this, I wish that they would do it. But, until then, I much prefer buying my clients’ records on Apple than downloading them for free.

[There is considerable disagreement within the music industry over the share of royalties from digital downloads. The dispute revolves around whether a music download should result in an artist royalty payment or if the download should be regarded as licensed revenue with the artist receiving a significantly higher royalty.]

There’s plenty of your clients’ music available on internet, even from legalized services, but that music isn’t always legal in America because of coming from overseas sources. Do you try to track that repertoire down, and try to stop it from being sold in the U.S., if royalties haven’t been paid?

Yes. We are constantly doing that. Even legitimate albums like EMI Gold (the EMI label set up for re-issues of existing albums and compilations) or (albums from) EMI UK, EMI France, EMI Germany or EMI Japan that end up over here (in the United States). Even EMI can’t figure out how that is happening. And (sometimes) they didn’t pay the music publishing mechanicals that are different, based on the jurisdiction.

You have a 1995 EMI Gold CD competing at $6.99 with a legitimate EMI CD—the exact same title—for $9.99. It was brought in by an independent distributor. I don’t know if they just picked it up as a throwaway, and brought it over from London or from Paris. Were we paid on that? Anything at all? Then you get the royalty statement from the record label that is 3,000 pages, and you need a degree in nuclear physics to interpret it.

The internet is filled with infringed music, graphics, videos etc. When do you go after an infringement?

There are a lot of infringements, and we have to make decision of what do we go in strongly against, and what do we write a letter to. If something seems more deliberate and intentionally is trading off my client’s intellectual property rights, obviously, we will be far more aggressive. If it is some small mom-and-pop where it is still clearly an infringement, yet probably on a very small scale, we just politely contact them and, hopefully, get them to engage in conversation, and we educate them. Then, 99% of the time after they learn about the situation, they apologize and stop the infringements.

Every now and then, you run across small and large companies who kind of thumb their nose at you and say, “I can do this if I want to.” Then my client has to decide how we are going to address it. Often times, it ends up in litigation. But we really only do that as a last resort; if we think it is a significant infringement that is damaging to the marketplace or is damaging to one of our licensing partners or to the brand or it confuses customers. That it makes it look like my clients are associated with some product or service that we are not.

Do you have to be vigilant worldwide on infringements?

One really does. Just last month Warner Brothers contacted me about a potential Humphrey Bogart infringement in Italy. I ended up retaining for my client an Italian firm to get involved. Corresponded with the company, and they stopped the infringement. Yes, we look at all of the marketplaces as much as humanly possible and try to be vigilant in international anti-infringement efforts.

Several of your clients, Peggy Lee, Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole worked in television and radio as well as in the recording industry decades ago. The opportunities for infringement with them are rather high.

Correct. Although with someone like Frank Sinatra, he went across numerous record labels as well. One of the (legal) complexities of some of the old master recordings is U.S. federal copyright law didn’t cover master audio recordings until 1972. So pre-’72 sound recordings are going to be governed by state law which is a whole complicated field in of itself; meaning state law covers chain of title issues etc. It definitely makes it complicated, and opportunities for infringement are great. The whole issue regarding free download of music, BitTorrent issues, we are constantly dealing with as well as with other more mainstream types of music situations like Spotify, Pandora, and Sirius radio which, if you kept up, you know that there are new cases being filed as we speak.

Bing Crosby’s estate was in litigation with Universal Music for over a decade.

And with someone whose career was a prolific as Bing Crosby spanning over 50 years. I’ve heard stories that there were literally train cars with his records.

[Filed in Los Angeles Superior Court in 2000, a lawsuit brought by the heirs of Bing Crosby accused Universal Music Group of underpaying royalties on his recordings.

Crosby, who died in 1977, recorded exclusively for Decca Records from Aug. 1934 until Dec. 1955. The Decca catalog—1,200 Crosby recordings--was subsequently acquired by MCA, and then Universal Music Group.

The lawsuit alleged that the singer negotiated a deal calling for royalties on all songs recorded before 1949 be paid at a rate of 15% of their wholesale price. Royalties for recordings made after that date were to be paid at 7% of their retail price.

According to the lawsuit, an audit showed Universal was paying royalties of 7% on all Crosby recordings.

On June 30, 2010, a jury in Santa Monica, California awarded the Crosby heirs in excess of $2 million in their lawsuit.

Bing Crosby may be the biggest selling recording artist of all time. He has sold close to one billion recordings, cassette tapes, CDs and digital downloads. The Guinness Book of World Records reports worldwide sales for his recording of “White Christmas” at over 100 million copies.]

As a result of a tradition of apparent underpayments, it has become the industry standard for artists to audit record companies to ascertain how much they are owed in back royalties. Have you overseen any litigation against labels?

No. I have negotiated with them across the table for my clients renegotiating digital issues, renegotiating streaming (royalties) and various other issues, including merchandising type of issues. I have not sued a record label. Kind of the goal is to have as good of a relationship with the labels as possible where interests are aligned in doing what is best for the artist.

That’s difficult when labels have “unmatched income” and “orphan works” often hiding owed artist royalties.

It certainly can, although one of the people that I respect most in the music business is John Ray, He’s head of business affairs at Capitol Records which is now with Universal. He’s usually on the opposite side of the table when we are negotiating, but he’s a great guy. He’s respected. He’s trustworthy and I honestly enjoy working with him. It non-adversarial even though we are arguing different positions for your clients.

Maybe he’s been softened up by Maria Cole, widow of Nat King Cole, and the Rick Nelson estate who both sued Capitol alleging that the label had underreported royalties owed.

I think that every label has weathered many, many lawsuits. Unfortunately, that’s just the nature of the business. But when it’s all said and done, the goal is to be business partners, and hopefully everybody is doing what is best for the artist or, in most of my client cases, the artist’s estates. How I know Owen Sloane (Co-Chair, Entertainment & Media Group - Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane, ALC in Los Angeles) is from working for the Nat King Cole estate. Owen was Maria Cole’s personal lawyer for years and years. Unfortunately, Maria passed away last summer. I represent the children, and their holding companies, King Cole Partners, LP and KCP Songs, LLC which is the publishing arm. We have worked with Owen on numerous issues over the years.

Are the major record companies more flexible with royalty issues with catalogs today? Have those battles been fought with everybody on both sides now understanding what the bigger issues are in going forward?

I think so. I think record companies are realizing too that the music industry is greatly changing, and has changed over the past few years, and is rapidly changing toward the future. I don’t think that anybody really knows where it’s going to end up. So everyone—I’m speaking primarily for catalog artists—are kind of reevaluating, how are we going to do business in the future. What is the business going to look like? We are kind of going through this together.

Catalog has not been a significant downloadable business.

Correct but, unfortunately, if someone wanted to download the entire discography of a 1950s and 1960s legacy artist they could probably do it in about 10 minutes and it would be free. That’s the problem that BitTorrent has caused the industry. However, I think that there are other business opportunities that are really growing through licensing and doing special projects where are these catalog artists are in demand. They just are not producing new Frank Sinatras, Nat King Coles, Bing Crosbys or Peggy Lees in the music business today. It is almost making their recordings even more valuable.

Do you see reissues where a label thinks they have all rights but don’t? So they have to get permission from the estate for use of photos, videos or audio clips?

In some cases they do, and in some cases they don’t. A lot of that will be governed by an AFTRA contract that the artist signed when they originally did it. We look at such issues as if when they are taking a clip from a TV (show) or an old movie or they showing the whole product in its entirety. Our rights to go back in and control or renegotiate or get a license really depend on what they are doing and what rights they had to begin with. Who owned the show to begin with? It really differs on a situation-by-situation basis.

You handle the estate of Peggy Lee, who is celebrated in legal circles for taking on the Walt Disney Company in the early ‘90s.

Right. That litigation happened before my time but I’ve heard the stories. She did very well in that case.

It set a precedent as well.

Yes. It really defined what artist rights were in a lot of the music products going forward.

[In 1991, singer Peggy Lee, who had earned $3,500 for her 6-song and voice contributions to the 1955 animated Disney film “Lady and the Tramp” was awarded $3.8 million by a Los Angeles jury. Her contract with the Walt Disney Company, which had made about $35 million from video cassette sales of the animated classic, was written long before videos. At the time of its theatrical release, the film took in a higher figure than any other Disney animated feature since “Snow White.”]

Is this a business where word-of-mouth had led you from one client to another?

It really is. All through law school, I thought that I was going to be interested in doing corporate transactional work. My background is….my undergraduate is in a degree in banking and finance. I started out in law school working for one of my law professors, Dr. Rick Huszagh.

So you started off on the corporate track.

After law school was over, after I graduated in 1992, Rick Huszagh offered me a (full-time) job at Twh Corporation. We went around the country helping law firms in big litigation cases manage data. This is right when computers started to being used by lawyers on their desks.

What was your role?

I was kind of the person in between the lawyers, the litigators using this data, and computers programmers. Helping them to design programs that specifically helped them in litigation. I did that for a couple of years. After working with these litigators for a couple of years and during law school, I realized that litigation seemed very interesting. It was constantly changing and, having to jump in and learn new areas of law, drew me to it.

So I started working with some lawyers in the area of civil rights law, and anti-discrimination law. It was primarily federal court. I started learning the ropes of federal civil procedure. Got involved in some cases around the country with some other lawyers. Over the next 10 years, I got a reputation that I would handle interesting cases, more complex cases that other lawyers who were not familiar with federal court really didn’t know what to do with.

So really all of my work was referral. With another lawyer, I started my own firm in the mid to late ‘90s called Crain & Davis, LLC based in Atlanta, Georgia. We handled a whole potpourri of federal civil litigation cases. From environmental cases—all on the plaintiff side—to consumer rights cases to anti-discrimination cases.

How did you get involved with the Jerry Garcia Estate?

In the early 2000s, I got a call from one of my ex-law school classmate, Christopher Sabec who had been hired to be the CEO of the Jerry Garcia Estate based in Sausalito, California. He is now the CEO of the Digital Rights Corporation. A really good friend of mine. A potential infringement came up with a national burrito fast food chain that our client contended were using Jerry Garcia’s face, and altered song lyrics to be part of the part of the trade dress of the restaurant.

Christopher and I talked about the case. He said, “I’ve talked with the family and they want to go after this company, and make them stop. Can you handle it?”

You were living in Atlanta?

I was. He called me because he knew I had handled bigger litigation cases, and knew that the defendant was based in Atlanta. We spoke and explored it, and I said, “Yes. I’m interested.” I had to sort of jump in the deep end in that area of law. I had to talk to some other experts; have them onboard, if and when needed; and had to become an expert in publicity rights litigation. There weren’t really that many people around the country who specialized in it at that point in time.

[In 2005, Jerry Garcia’s estate filed a federal suit filed in Atlanta against Moe's Southwestern Grill alleging that the restaurant chain used Garcia's image unlawfully to sell food (i.e. the "Alfredo Garcia" fajita with its choice of grilled chicken, steak or tofu with lettuce, salsa, and shredded cheese).

Moe's Southwestern Grill was also using images of deceased celebrities, including Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin, Bob Marley, Frank Sinatra, Elvis Presley and others as the inspiration for the names of menu items, and as restaurant artwork.

The Garcia estate suit accused Moe's of violating federal trademark and copyright laws and state fair trade laws and asked for unspecified but "significant" damages.

The suit also said the trademarked lyrics of Garcia’s song, "Casey Jones," were altered, and hung in stores in a violation of a trademark on the song.

Founded in Atlanta in 2000, Moe's Southwestern Grill was then part of the holding company Raving Brands Inc., and was being operated by Martin Sprock. In 2007, when Moe’s was purchased by FOCUS Brands, the chain had 360 locations in 35 states in the U.S.]

Wouldn’t Moe's Southwestern Grill be protected by the First Amendment’s freedom of speech rights?

Well, I’m all for the first amendment right but when free speech or journalistic speech turns into commercial advertising speech, and part of a business that we did not authorize that’s when my clients start having problem with it.

When they are selling the name, image likeness of Jerry Garcia and altered song lyrics, it’s certainly—at least in our opinion—and, generally, a similar behavior would give the impression that the estate is somehow endorsing or affiliated with the business. And that was not the case.

So they (the Jerry Garcia Estate) hired me to do that litigation. We started the ball rolling, filled suit, spent a lot of time prepping, drafting, researching and really as soon as we filed it (the lawsuit) because it was a novel case the media picked up on it and, before you knew it, I had a call from a lawyer in New York saying, “We’ve read about your case. We represent some clients who appear also to be potentially involved in your litigation. Would you be interested in representing them?” I said, “Yes. Who are your clients?” They said, “Well we represent the estates of John Lennon, George Harrison, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Bob Marley, Barry White, and Miles Davis. And, by the way, the Frank Sinatra family wants to talk to you, as well.”

A big phone call for you.

Yes. After climbing back into my seat, I said, “Great. I’d love to talk with you.” One thing led to another, and I ended up representing all of those estates. We go through litigation and we get it resolved through a confidential settlement agreement. Everybody was happy. That was approximately a two year process.

It surprised me that Moe's Southwestern Grill had been using celebrity likenesses, and nobody had challenged them up to that point.

It was my impression that the restaurant which was a new restaurant chain, run by very savvy and sophisticated team of businessmen, grew very, very quickly. And within a relatively short period of time, they had hundreds of locations across the country. Their main markets were not the markets where these estates resided. That’s the only explanation that I know how these estates came to me first before going directly to their own litigation.

Despite their hippie origins, Grateful Dead members are regarded as astute businessmen as related in Barry Barnes’ 2012 book, “Everything I Know About Business I Learned From The Grateful Dead.”

From what I learned how they did business---and although I did not represent the Grateful Dead---they had a very well-oiled machine, and some of the best experts, really in the country, working with them based in San Francisco. I have a lot of respect for how the Grateful Dead carry on their business, and how the remaining artists in the band continue to do so today.. They are extremely sophisticated.

[Guitarist Jerry Garcia and the rest of the Grateful Dead are touted as marketing gurus in the 2012 book “Everything I Know About Business I Learned From the Grateful Dead” (Hachette Book Group).

“They created a unique business model,” said author Barry Barnes, a professor of management at Nova Southeastern University in Florida.

According to Barnes, the band was a pioneer of customer relations, viral marketing and today's “freemium” model. Letting fans tape shows, for example, boosted ticket and merchandise sales.]

What are your outside interests? Sports?

English Premier (League) soccer is the #1 sport in our family.

What did you think of Gareth Barry’s historic 500th Premier League appearance when his Everton Football Club side beat Newcastle United 3-2 last week.

I don’t really care about Everton. The (English) team I favor is Liverpool.

[At 32, Gareth Barry, the on-loan Manchester City midfielder, became only the 10th player to reach the landmark when he started on Sept. 30th, 2013.]

How did you become a fan of English football while living in the U.S.?

I grew up playing soccer. I have three children. My oldest is 19, and just started university. He played soccer all of the way up.. My youngest is 13 and he’s heavily into soccer. He plays very high level soccer.

Why Liverpool?

I have always been a Liverpool fan. It’s probably somehow related to growing up, and my mom was a big Beatles’ fan. When I really started getting into it, I liked some of the Liverpool players, and there seemed to be a big following and I liked the culture around it, but it wasn’t one of the big other clubs like Man U, Arsenal or Chelsea.

Of course, the 2014 FIFA World Cup takes place in Brazil next summer. Who do you favor?

I’m a big England fan. I like Steven Gerrard, and Glen Johnson from Liverpool on the team. I also like Frank Lampard, although he’s from Chelsea.

Larry LeBlanc is widely recognized as one of the leading music industry journalists in the world. Before joining CelebrityAccess in 2008 as senior editor, he was the Canadian bureau chief of Billboard from 1991-2007 and Canadian editor of Record World from 1970-89. He was also a co-founder of the late Canadian music trade, The Record.

Larry is the recipient of the 2013 Walt Grealis Special Achievement Award, recognizing individuals who have made an impact on the Canadian music industry.

He has been quoted on music industry issues in hundreds of publications including Time, Forbes, and the London Times. He is co-author of the book “Music From Far And Wide.”


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Lee Abrams, XM Satellite Radio 11/28/03
John Acquaviva, Fund Manager, DJ and Serial Entrepreneur 07/09/15
Jay Boy Adams, Roadhouse Transportation 05/04/07
Jamie Adler, Adler Entertainment Group 05/11/07
Gary Adler, National Association of Ticket Brokers 12/04/13
Rodney Afshari, Freeze Artist Management 03/01/02
JC Ahn, VU Entertainment 04/10/13
Steve Alaimo, Vision Records & Audio Vision Studios 05/26/06
Jaye Albright, Albright & O'Malley Consulting 07/19/10
Randy Alexander, Randex Communications 10/12/07
David Alexander, Sheer Publishing 07/21/16
Eva Alexiou-Reo, FATA Booking Agency 05/14/15
Marcie Allen, Mad Booking 12/14/00
Jeff Allen, Universal Attractions 08/16/02
Marcie Allen, MAC Presents 06/05/09
Marcie Allen Cardwell, MAC Presents 12/21/07
David Allgood, Bama Theatre 01/03/11
Patrick Allocco, AllGood Concerts 10/05/07
Michele Amar, French Embassy 05/26/16
Mike Amato, Rok Tours International 02/02/07
Jeff Apregan, Apregan Entertainment Group/Venue Coalition 09/30/15
Billy Atwell, AMP Studios 12/13/07
Bob Babisch, Milwaukee World Festivals Inc. 04/02/15
Tom Baggot, 05/02/03
Stephen Bailey, EPACC & Deleware Center For The Arts 02/06/04
Cary Baker, Conqueroo 05/11/11
Vince Bannon, Getty Images 07/05/11
Phil Barber, Barber & Associates 02/04/01
Camille Barbone, WineDark Records 12/09/05
Erin Barra, Musician/Producer/Educator 07/10/14
Ben Baruch, The Fox Theatre 09/27/08
Ben Baruch, By Larry LeBlanc (CelebrityAccess) 04/05/17
Paul Bassman, Ascend Insurance Brokerage 08/03/16
Adam Bauer, Fleming, Tamulevich & Associates 02/15/02
Ed Bazel, That's Entertainment International 10/05/01
Joachim Becker, ZOHO Music L.L.C. 01/12/07
Howard Becker, Comet Technologies 05/02/11
Mark Bego, Author 06/15/07
Jim Beloff, Flea Market Music 09/20/10
Richard Bengloff, The American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) 09/12/13
Seth Berg, South Bay Music 01/30/09
Aimee Berger, 2 Generations SPA Music Management 09/24/04
David Berger, Future Beat 10/29/14
Barry Bergman, Music Managers Forum 03/14/03
Steve Bernstein, Relix LLC 09/30/05
Mark Berry, Attack Media Group 04/07/07
Scott Billington, Rounder Records 01/17/12
Jeffrey Bischoff, Cinder Block 03/24/06
Sat Bisla, A&R Worldwide/ Musexpo 03/29/10
Nina Blackwood, Sirius Satellite Radio 07/14/06
Adam Block, Legacy Recordings 11/07/13
P.J. Bloom, Neophonic, Inc. 01/24/11
Rishon Blumberg, Brick Wall Management 06/27/03
Justin Bolognino, Learned Evolution, and The Meta Agency 04/25/13
Steve "Chopper" Borges, Total Pro and Borse Techos 03/03/06
Les Borsai, Mediocre Management 01/30/04
Shane Bourbonnais, Live Nation Canada 03/21/08
Jeff Bowen, Sears Centre Arena 03/13/08
Rick Bowen, Mystic Music Experience 07/11/08
John Boyle, Sanctuary Music Group 03/19/04
Jeff & Todd Brabec, Writers/Attorneys 01/03/12
Bill Bragin, Joe's Pub at the Public Theater 08/08/03
Joel Brandes, Avenue Management Group 11/02/08
Joe Brandmeier, Moving Pictures 03/15/02
Scooter Braun, SB Projects 12/13/10
Ron Brice, 3rd & Lindsley Bar & Grill 06/08/16
Billy Brill, Billy Alan Productions 11/11/05
Doug Brown, Talent Buyers Network 09/21/01
James Browne, Sweet Rhythm 11/01/02
Bob Brumley, Brumley Music Company 02/17/16
Tony Brummel, Victory Records 05/17/09
Charlie Brusco, TBA Entertainment Corporation 10/13/01
Del Bryant, BMI 05/18/07
Cortez Bryant, Bryant Management 12/06/10
Stephen Budd, Stephen Budd Management 07/13/17
Bruce Burch, University of Georgia Music Business Program 10/09/09
Deborah Burda, Kentucky Exposition Center 08/03/07
Patti Burgart, IEBA 06/07/02
Jordan Burger, The New Musiquarium 01/22/01
Ron Burman, Roadrunner Records 08/25/06
Suzanne Cadgene, Elmore 05/19/06
Karen Cadle, KGC Productions 03/12/04
Gary Calamar, KCRW 07/10/09
Charles Caldas, Merlin 07/05/10
Brian Camelio, ArtistShare 02/29/08
David Campbell, AEG Europe 08/02/10
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Entertainment Group 10/20/00
Tom Cantone, Foxwoods Resort Casino 07/03/03
Tom Cantone, Mohegan Sun 08/30/09
Ashley Capps, A. C. Entertainment 05/21/04
Rio Caraeff, Vevo 07/12/11
Mike Carden, Eagle Rock Entertainment 08/16/11
Charles Carlini, Carlini Group 05/16/08
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 05/27/05
Mark Carpentieri, M.C. Records 01/10/11
Troy Carter, Coalition Media Group 06/07/10
Daniel Catullo, Coming Home Studios 06/22/08
Raffi Cavoukian, Folk Singer/Children's Entertainer 05/11/16
Jeffrey Chabon, Chabon Entertainment Group 08/22/02
Mike Chadwick, Essential Music & Marketing 08/01/12
Rob Challice, Coda Music Agency 03/27/13
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 01/11/02
Tom Chauncey, Partisan Arts 10/04/11
Lisa Cherniak, Artists Against Racism (AAR) 07/20/01
Bob Chiappardi, Concrete Marketing 06/13/03
Joel Chriss, Chriss & Co. 10/04/02
Michael Chugg, Michael Chugg Entertainment 09/14/01
Michael Chugg, Chugg Enterprises 10/02/09
Gary Churgin, Harry Fox Agency 09/13/10
Vinny Cinquemani, S.L. Feldman & Associates 12/13/12
Barry Coburn, Ten Ten Music Group 03/28/11
Matthew Cohen, Green Room Productions 10/19/01
Ted Cohen, TAG Strategic 01/10/13
Lisa Cohen, Associated Booking Corporation 02/10/06
Steve Cohen, Music + Art Management, Inc. 03/09/07
Dan Cohen, Music & Memory 01/12/17
Michael Cohl - Part 1, S2BN Entertainment 03/06/13
Michael Cohl - Part 2, S2BN Entertainment 03/13/13
Bryan Coleman, Union Entertainment Group 02/14/12
Mamie Coleman, Fox Broadcasting 07/05/12
Dennis Condon, Disneyland Resorts 07/13/01
Peter Conlon, Peter Conlon Presents 05/20/05
Tony Conway, Buddy Lee Attractions 10/06/00
Allen Cook, TOURtech 04/16/15
Tomas Cookman, Cookman International 09/05/03
Alex Cooley, Alex Cooley Presents 07/12/10
David Cooper, 10/31/03
Jay Cooper, Greenberg Traurig, LLP 05/23/11
Julie Coulter, Near North Insurance Groups 06/07/01
Amy Cox, Deep South Entertainment 02/09/07
Michael O. Crain, Crain Law Group, LLC 10/09/13
Charlie Cran, The Strawberry Music Festival 04/05/10
Jim Cressman, Invictus Entertainment Group 06/06/12
Russ Crupnick, MusicWatch, Inc. 07/23/15
Todd Culberhouse, Vision Management /Vision Records and Entertainment 09/05/08
Tony D'Amelio, Washington Speakers Bureau 04/21/06
Ruth Daniel, In Place of War 08/09/17
Ray Danniels, Standing Room Only Management, and the Anthem Entertainment Group 03/05/15
Ken Dashow, WAXQ-FM (l04.3 FM) - New York 09/08/06
Hal David, Lyricist 07/26/11
David Davidian, Independant Lighting Designer/Director 06/18/04
Anthony Davis, D&L Entertainment Services, Inc. 03/02/01
Chip Davis, American Gramaphone/Mannheim Steamroller 05/31/02
Mitch Davis, Tempest Entertainment 07/16/04
Jeff Dawson, Canadian Recording Services 06/08/08
Desiree Day, USO Celebrity Entertainment 08/10/01
Shauna de Cartier, Six Shooter Records/Six Shooter Management 10/23/13
Gene DeAnna, The Library of Congress 02/21/12
Vincent Degiorgio, Chapter 2 Productions 08/01/13
Tony DeLauro, DeLauro Management 12/23/04
Valerie Denn, Val Denn Agency 04/30/01
Val Denn, Val Denn Agency 03/06/14
Robert DePugh, Alligator Records 07/29/05
Tom Derr, Rock Ridge Music 10/29/04
Paul Dexter, Masterworks Lighting Design and Road Cases 12/10/04
Marty Diamond, Paradigm 01/22/10
Glenn Dicker, Redeye Distribution/Yep Roc Records 07/07/06
Barry Dickins, International Talent Booking Agency 06/06/13
Jim Digby, Event Safety Alliance 09/01/16
Mark Dinerstein, The Knitting Factory 11/17/06
Neill Dixon, Canadian Music Week 03/03/16
Thomas Dolby, Musician, academic, technologist, and author 11/09/16
Jasper Donat, Music Matters 2009/Branded 04/24/09
Jim Donio, National Association of Recording Merchandisers 04/22/11
Marc Dottore, M. Dottore Management 04/11/03
Tim Drake, The Roots Agency 12/12/08
Mike Dreese, Newbury Comics 11/23/11
Charles Driebe, Blind Ambition Management Ltd. 09/22/06
Jeremy Driesen, Ray Bloch Productions 09/07/01
Michael Drumm, Music Link Productions 07/18/08
Angie Dunn, Lucky Artist Booking 10/13/06
Jay Durgan, MEDIAmobz 11/09/11
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver's Division of Theatres & Arenas 08/02/02
Erik Dyce, City and County of Denver’s Division of Theatres and Arenas 08/23/10
Paolo d’Alessandro, International Solutions 06/25/14
Ros Earls, 140dB Management 02/19/14
Art Edelstein, Festival Productions 12/01/02
Bruce Eisenberg, Audio Analysts 08/31/01
Martin Elbourne, The Glastonbury Festival 12/18/09
Michael Elder, Red Entertainment 03/17/06
Tod Elmore, Sixthman 11/24/06
Paul Emery, Clear Channel Entertainment 11/19/04
Arty Erk, Citrin Cooperman 04/27/16
Joe Escalante, Kung Fu Records 07/08/05
Colin Escott, Music Historian/Journalist 07/18/11
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 09/27/02
Ritch Esra, The Music Business Registry 04/24/12
Mike Esterman, Esterman Entertainment 09/01/06
Jeff Eyrich, BePop Records 11/25/05
Bob Ezrin, Bigger Picture Group 05/24/09
Lisa Fancher, Frontier Records 08/09/10
Rick Farman, Superfly Productions 10/15/04
Ray Farrell, eMusic 06/09/06
Sam Feldman, S.L. Feldman & Associates 10/25/02
Bob Feldman, Red House Records 11/24/02
Charlie Feldman, BMI 08/26/05
Paul Fenn, Asgard Promotions 11/22/09
Debra "Fergy" Ferguson, TourDesign 08/01/03
Pete Fisher, Grand Ole Opry 09/11/09
David Fishof, David Fishof Presents 01/08/01
David Fishof, Rock 'N Roll Fantasy 10/05/08
David Fishof, Rock ’n’ Roll Fantasy Camp 02/28/12
Mike Flanagin, New England Country Music Festival 09/12/08
Joel Flatow, RIAA 12/13/11
Jim Fleming, Fleming Artists 03/20/10
Joe Fletcher, Joe Fletcher Presents 01/12/06
Jeff Fluhr, StubHub 10/06/06
Nancy Fly, The Nancy Fly Agency 04/02/04
Arthur Fogel, Live Nation 08/09/09
Martin Folkman, Independent Music Awards & Music Resource Group 08/11/06
Belle Forino, Fantasma Tours 03/18/05
Fletcher Foster, Universal Records South 07/31/09
Sam Foxman, Contemporary Productions 01/06/06
Todd Frank, 4Star Entertainment, LLC 01/24/03
Bob Frank, Koch Entertainment 01/09/09
Larry Frank, Frank Productions 01/17/11
Mike Fraser, Record Producer/Engineer 10/11/08
Carl Freed, Metropolitan Entertainment 06/22/01
Elizabeth Freund, Beautiful Day Media & Management 01/26/07
Harlan Frey, Roadrunner Records 07/11/03
Adam Friedman, Nederlander Concerts 06/22/07
Ted Gardner, Larrikin Management 04/25/03
Daniel Gélinas, Festival d’été de Québec 05/23/13
Marci Geller, Sonic Underground 08/15/08
Chris Gero, Yamaha Entertainment Group 10/26/16
Steve Gerstman, SGS 07/19/02
Sandra Gibson, The Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/09/04
Sandra L. Gibson, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 01/16/09
Steve Gietka, Trump Properties 07/30/01
Steve Gietka, SMG Entertainment 03/19/14
Darren Gilmore, Watchdog Management 03/17/16
Daniel Glass, Glassnote Entertainment Group 10/16/14
Jake Gold, The Management Trust 04/13/01
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 09/07/07
Harris Goldberg, Concert Ideas 06/27/11
Neil Goldberg, Cirque Productions 04/16/14
Martin Goldschmidt, Cooking Vinyl Group 09/29/16
Harvey Goldsmith, Harvey Goldsmith Productions 06/28/10
Michael Goldstein, RockPoP Gallery 11/09/07
Seth Goldstein, 09/20/11
Anna Paula Goncalves, CEO Global Brand Appeal 08/20/14
Arnie Goodman, Blue Storm Music 11/15/02
Wesley Goodman, Red Entertainment 09/16/05
Richard Goodstone, Superfly Productions 01/27/06
Christie Goodwin, Photographer 03/18/15
Rob Gordon, What Are Records? LTD 02/01/02
Steve Gordon, Entertainment Attorney 08/06/04
Yoav Goren, Immediate Music & Imperativa Records 06/10/14
Mike Gormley, L.A. Personal Development 11/10/06
Jonathan Gosselin, Gosselin Marketing & Promotions 07/02/04
Richard Gottehrer, The Orchard 04/10/09
Sean Goulding, The Agency Group London 09/12/12
Jerimaya Grabher, RPM Direct 09/26/03
Mary Granata, The Granata Agency 09/06/10
Kelly Graves, Providence Performing Arts Center/Professional Facilities Management 01/20/02
Stan Green, Stanley A. Green Lighting and Productions 12/12/03
Mark Green, Celebrity Talent Agency Inc. / Bergen Performing Arts Center 08/12/05
Jeffrey Green, Americana Music Association 03/10/06
Paul Green, The School of Rock 07/06/08
Benjy Grinberg, Rostrum Records 12/06/11
Brent Grulke, SXSW 03/06/09
Michael Gudinski, The Mushroom Group 10/29/15
Phil Guiliano, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. & OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/25/05
Steve Gumble, SBG Productions 06/16/06
Greg Hagglund, Vivelo! 05/07/04
Rodney Hall, FAME Music Group 11/06/09
Rob Hallett, Robomagic 02/05/15
Craig Hankenson, Producers, Inc 02/23/06
Kerry Hansen, Wynonna Incorporated 10/03/03
Eric Hanson, Ted Kurland Associates 12/20/02
Eric Hanson, Tree Lawn Artists 03/23/07
Rusty Harmon, MTM Music Management 12/06/07
Ali Harnell, Clear Channel Entertainment Nashville 08/15/03
Bob Harris, 02/06/09
Evan Harrison, Huka Entertainment 12/08/16
David Hart, The Agency Group 02/20/04
Laura Hassler, Musicians without Borders 12/02/15
Abe Hathot, Musician, composer, and music producer. 12/21/16
Steve Hecht, Piedmont Talent 08/29/12
Travis Hellyer, Mezzanine 09/02/05
Janie Hendrix, Experience Hendrix 02/01/10
Nona Hendryx, Rhythmbank Entertainment 06/02/06
Dan Herrington, Dualtone Records 07/25/03
Sara Hickman, Sleeveless/Stingray 06/30/06
Dan Hirsch, On Board Entertainment 04/04/03
Nick Hobbs, Charmenko 12/14/01
Carel Hoffman, Hilltop Live/Oppikoppi Productions 11/07/12
Ian Hogarth, Songkick 08/09/11
Gene Hollister, Rose Presents 04/08/01
Rusty Hooker, Rock Steady Management Agency 02/16/01
Jake Hooker, Hook Entertainment 05/10/02
Martin Hopewell, Primary Talent International 04/19/02
Tom Hoppa, TKO Booking Agency 09/29/06
Bobbie Horowitz, Times Square Group 01/04/02
Barney Hoskyns, Rock's Backpages 11/01/11
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 10/27/00
Bruce Houghton, Skyline Music 01/22/14
Andi Howard, Peak Records and Andi Howard Entertainment 09/02/03
Barbara Hubbard, ACTS 09/12/03
Laurent Hubert, BMG US 11/12/15
Seth Hurwitz, I.M.P. 04/20/09
Ariel Hyatt, Author, and founder of Cyber PR 11/23/16
Mark Hyman, Ashley Talent International 11/09/01
Brett Hyman, Category 5 Entertainment 07/23/04
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 08/17/01
Bruce Iglauer, Alligator Records 05/28/14
Doug Isaac, Super Bowl Concert Series Producer (EXI) 08/24/01
David Israelite, National Music Publishers' Association 11/29/08
Tom Jackson, Tom Jackson Productions 02/06/13
Jay Jacobs, Parc Landon 09/21/07
Larry Jacobson, World Audience 09/17/04
Audra Jaeger, The Management Trust 05/09/03
Ralph James, The Agency Group 01/31/11
Jeffrey Jampol, Jampol Artist Management 07/18/12
Jean Michel Jarre, International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) 06/19/13
Michael Jaworek, The Birchmere 05/08/09
Peter Jesperson, New West Records 11/03/06
John Jeter, The Handlebar 08/15/12
Mike Johnson, Groundrush Media 02/17/06
Andrea Johnson, ICM Partners 11/02/17
Mike Gormley & Jolene Pellant, Yes, Dear Entertainment 04/23/10
Susan Joseph, Justice Entertainment Group 02/21/11
Darren Julien, Julien's Auctions 10/25/10
Henry Juszkiewicz, Gibson Guitars 09/28/10
Justin Kalifowitz, Downtown Publishing 04/20/17
Leonard Kalikow, Music Business Reference, Inc. 06/26/08
Craig Kallman, Atlantic Records 03/20/09
Steve Kane, Warner Music Canada 02/09/17
Danny Kapilian, Independent Producer 07/12/02
Mike Kappus, The Rosebud Agency 10/26/09
Andy Kaufman, Birdland 05/17/02
Wendy Kay, Mars Talent Agency 03/09/01
Lucas Keller, The Collective 03/22/11
Marty Kern, Clemson University 07/07/01
Carlos Keyes, Red Entertainment 10/08/04
Golnar Khosrowshahi, Reservoir Media Management 10/24/12
Martin Kierszenbaum, Interscope/Cherrytree Records 09/06/09
Barney Kilpatrick, Rattlesby Records 10/28/05
John Kinsner, The Walnut Room 03/28/08
Doug Kirby, LiveTourArtists 10/24/03
Steve Kirsner, Compaq Center 06/29/01
JoAnne Klabin, Sweet Relief 03/21/03
Andrew Klein, Revolution Marketing 11/05/04
Larry Klein, Producer, bassist, songwriter 03/13/12
Jack Kleinsinger, Highlights in Jazz 04/25/08
Ann Kline, Casa Kline 09/04/14
Brian Knaff, Talent Buyers Network 09/29/01
Kymberlee Knight, IEBA 11/16/00
Mike Kociela, 360 Productions 05/30/08
Stefan Kohlmeyer, Bach Technology 02/08/10
Lily Kohn, Microsoft Corporation 02/14/11
Tim Kolleth, Alligator Records 01/25/08
Al Kooper, Musician/songwriter/producer/author 02/06/14
Mitchell Koulouris, Digital Musicworks International, Inc. 02/11/05
Mark Krantz, John Schreiber Group 06/15/01
Jeff Krasno, Velour Music Group 11/19/07
Jeffrey Kruger, The Kruger Organisation 01/25/02
Harvey Kubernik, Author/historian/music journalist 08/20/15
Ted Kurland, Ted Kurland Associates 01/15/01
Jordan Kurland, Zeitgeist Artist Management 08/23/11
Carianne Laguna, Blackheart Records 03/07/08
Brady Lahr, Kufala Recordings 04/30/04
Ernie Lake, EL Records 01/19/07
Roks Lam, Wolfman Jack Entertainment 12/17/04
Anni Lam, Parc Landon 06/29/07
Gary Lane, CenterLane Attractions 10/14/05
Tom LaPenna, Lucky Man Productions 09/10/04
Camilo Lara, EMI Music Mexico/MIS 08/10/07
Gary Lashinsky, Lipizzaner Tours 05/13/05
Gregg Latterman, Aware Records 12/13/02
Tony Laurenson, Eat to the Beat 02/27/04
Emily Lazar, The Lodge 10/15/15
Bill Leabody, Leabody Systems 06/10/05
Peter Leak, 24-7 Worldwide Management 03/28/12
Steve Leeds, SR. VP/Promotion/Rock Formats at Virgin Records 07/26/02
Elliot Lefko, Goldenvoice 09/21/17
Bob Lefsetz, The Lefsetz Letter 11/14/08
Carl Leighton-Pope, Leighton-Pope Organisation 07/05/09
Steve Lemon, Live 4 Live, Inc. 12/06/02
Randy Lennox, Universal Music Canada 06/24/15
Simma Levine, Disson Furst and Partners 11/10/00
Andy Levine, Sixthman 06/08/07
Rich Levy, Clear Channel Entertainment Properties 06/25/04
Eddie Levy, Chelsea Music Publishing 07/24/14
Myles Lewis, Denise Rich Songs 12/20/10
Adam Lewis, Planetary Group 01/20/16
Terry Lickona, Austin City Limits 03/14/11
Justine Liddelow, Stage and Screen Travel Services 08/31/11
Jim Lidestri, Border City Media 09/03/15
Larry Lieberman, 4EverWild 03/28/03
Eric Lilavois, Crown City Studios, and London Bridge Studio 12/10/14
Miriam Linna, Norton Records 05/18/17
Marc Lipkin, Alligator Records 03/05/05
Tommy LiPuma (Part 1), Verve Records 11/08/10
Tommy LiPuma (Part 2), Verve Records 11/15/10
Alexander Ljung, SoundCloud 10/04/10
Andy Lo Russo, The Singing Chef 12/16/05
Phil Lobel, Lobeline Communications 08/13/04
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 01/21/05
Paul Lohr, New Frontier Touring 05/17/10
Julie Lokin, New Audiences 03/23/01
Dave Lory, Artemis Records 03/30/02
Max Loubiere, Tour Director 04/11/12
Mark Lourie, Skyline Music 03/08/02
Dave Lucas, Live-360 04/28/06
Joe Lucchese, EventJoe 02/23/07
Kevin Lyman, 4 fini 03/30/01
Kevin Lyman, Vans Warped Tour 05/23/12
Jennifer Lyon, MeanRed Productions 01/18/18
Bubba Mac, 09/14/07
David Macias, Emergent Music Marketing 06/17/05
Kristen Madsen, Grammy Foundation and MusiCares 11/22/10
Larry Magid, Larry Magid Entertainment 05/04/10
Peter Malkin, PM Management 02/07/03
Toby Mamis, Alive Enterprises 02/12/01
Billy Mann, Green & Bloom | Topl1ne, Manncom 09/18/14
Tasea Margeolas, Multi Entertainment 06/23/06
Tony Margherita, dBpm Records 09/06/11
Bob Roux & Mark Campana, Live Nation 12/20/11
Lee Marshall, Magic Arts & Entertainment 09/13/02
Zach Martin, Radio Producer at New York's WAXQ-FM 08/30/02
Mario Martin, Gorgeous PR 04/27/07
Molly Martinez, Ticket Summit 2008 05/23/08
Paul Mascioli, Mascioli Entertainment 01/14/05
Michael Maska, Big Hassle 01/28/05
Ted Mason, Mi-5 Recordings 11/16/01
Steve Masur, Masur & Associates, LLC 11/21/03
Pam Matthews, The Ryman Auditorium 04/08/05
Terry McBride, Nettwerk Music Group 03/01/10
Michael McCarty, ole 06/20/11
Jim McDonald, McDonald Group 12/19/03
Virginia McEnerney, HeadCount 11/26/07
Doc McGhee, McGhee Entertainment 06/14/10
Camilla McGuinn, Tour Manager 08/24/07
Andy McLean, North By Northeast (NXNE) 04/01/05
Dennis McNally, Grateful Dead historian/publicist 09/06/02
Garry McQuinn, Back Row Productions 06/14/11
Ruthann McTyre, The Rita Benton Music Library; and president of the Music Library Association 08/31/10
Dick McVey, Musician's Referral Service 10/27/07
Katherine McVicker, Music Works International 01/08/15
John Meglen, Concerts West/AEG Live 02/21/13
Mark Meharry, Music Glue 05/28/15
Jorge Mejia, Sony/ATV Music Publishing 09/17/15
Dan Melnick, Festival Productions, Inc. 02/22/02
André Ménard, Festival International de Jazz de Montréal 06/12/09
Bob Merlis, Merlis For Hire/Memphis International Records 01/16/04
Doug Merrick, Cumberland Talent Agency and Merrick Music Group 07/21/06
Louis Messina, The Messina Group 10/22/04
Louis Messina, The Messina Group/AEG Live 07/17/09
Louis Jay Meyers, North American Folk Music and Dance Alliance 03/30/07
Louis Jay Meyers, Folk Alliance International 01/23/09
Todd Miller, House Of Blues - New Orleans 11/14/03
Jeff Miller, Fantasma Productions 03/16/07
Ben Miller, Rock Ridge Music 11/02/07
J. B. Miller, Empire Entertainment 08/22/08
Richard Mills, S.L. Feldman 11/02/09
Marty Monson, Barbershop Harmony Society 07/07/16
Linda Moran, Songwriters Hall of Fame (SHOF) 04/05/09
Jesse Morreale, Nobody In Particular Presents (NIPP) 09/20/02
Chuck Morris, Live Rocky Mountains 09/28/09
Mo Morrison, Independent production 05/24/02
Kevin Morrow, Steel Wool Entertainment 01/25/17
Nick Moss, Blue Bella Records 11/30/07
Jim Musselman, Appleseed Recordings 04/14/06
Natalia Nastaskin, United Talent Agency 04/13/16
Marc Nathan, Flagship Records 07/01/05
David Neilon, Rising Star Promotions 11/30/01
Don Neuen, Star Coaches Inc. 10/10/12
Dennis Newhall, DIG Music 10/07/05
John Nittolo, John Nittolo Productions 04/13/07
Ian Noble, Metropolitan Talent 05/23/03
Fabricio Nobre, A Construtora Música e Cultura 05/04/17
Josh Norek, JN Media, LLC 07/05/02
David Norman, Tour Manager 04/20/07
Mimi Northcott, Canadian Recording Services (CRS) 04/11/08
Bill Nowlin, Rounder Records 01/05/07
John Nugent, NY JAM Inc. 11/08/02
Andy Nulman, Just For Laughs 11/20/13
Sal Nunziato, NYCD 06/01/01
Bob O'Neal, Ryman Auditorium 06/28/02
Andrea Orbeck, Prehab Health and Fitness 03/15/10
Heather Orser, Toad's Place 01/29/01
Janet Oseroff, MultiMediaProperties 11/18/05
Marc Ostrow, Boosey & Hawkes 12/05/08
Riley O’Connor, Live Nation Canada 07/24/09
Jeremy Palmer, Buddy Lee Attractions 11/02/01
John Palmer, Megawave Records 08/31/07
Panos Panay, Sonicbids 12/23/05
Julien Paquin, Paquin Artists Agency 04/30/14
Graham Parker, WQXR-FM 11/26/14
Crispin Parry, British Underground 02/24/08
Donald Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 04/09/10
Donald S. Passman, Gang, Tyre, Ramer & Brown 01/06/16
Bruce Patron, Overland Entertainment 07/28/06
Alexandra Patsavas, Chop Shop Music 09/27/11
Cheryl Pawelski, Omnivore Entertainment Group 09/26/13
Kerry Peace, Alligator Records 08/18/06
Eric Peltoniemi, Red House Records 12/14/09
Scott Perry, Sperry Media 03/11/05
Lawrence Peryer, Jr., 23 Omnimedia 11/07/08
John Peters, MassConcerts 06/07/11
Holger Petersen, Stony Plain Records 04/15/05
Jon Phillips, Silverback Professional Artist Mgmt/Controlled Substance Sound 08/29/08
Dave Pichilingi, Sound City 03/30/16
Vince Pileggi, Music Inc./Music Inc. Sounds 12/01/06
Eric Pirritt, Endit! Presents / The Fox Theatre 10/17/03
Neil Portnow, The Recording Academy 02/08/11
Louis Posen, Hopeless Records 04/04/11
Stephen Posen, Estate of Glenn Gould 01/23/13
Nadia Prescher, Madison House 06/20/03
Jeff Price, TuneCore 02/28/11
Tom Principato, Powerhouse Records 02/01/08
Roger Probert, Core Records 12/08/06
John "Grinder" Procaccini, JP Squared (JP2) 01/17/03
Mark Pucci, Independent Music Publicist 09/09/05
David Pullman, The Pullman Group 11/03/00
Rod Quinton, Saigon Sound System 04/18/11
Dolphus Ramseur, Ramseur Records 10/19/07
Jack Randall, Ted Kurland Associates 04/05/02
Jack Randall, The Kurland Agency 03/08/17
Debra Rathwell, AEG Live 05/03/13
Jeff Ravitz, Visual Terrain 02/08/08
Paul Reed, Association of Independent Festivals (AIF) 06/14/17
Rich Rees, M.P.I. Talent Agency 09/19/08
John Reese, Freeze Artist Management 08/01/08
Bill Reeves, WRIII, Inc. 10/20/06
Stephen Rehage, Rehage Entertainment 07/30/04
Lisa Reiss, Pearl Productions 08/17/07
Salaam Remi, Composer, producer, musician and label executive. 01/08/14
David Renzer, Universal Music Publishing Group 08/23/09
Alison Richard, Universal Orlando Resort 05/06/05
Kelli Richards, The All Access Group 02/07/12
Gary Richards, HARD Events 08/29/13
Sam Righi, Waterfront Entertainment Group 05/30/03
Jon Rinaldo, Joker Productions 01/02/04
Geary Rindels, Geary Rindels Enterprises, Inc. 12/05/03
Doreen Ringer Ross, BMI 01/18/08
Lisette Rioux, Island Def Jam Music Group 05/16/03
Dave Roberge, Everfine Records & Everfine Artist Management 12/03/04
Sandy Roberton, Worlds End Producer Management 02/20/09
Ty Roberts, Gracenote 01/31/12
Bill Rogers, BRE Presents 07/13/07
Ian Rogers, Topspin Media 06/01/10
Benji Rogers, PledgeMusic 12/19/13
Dave Rose, Deep South Entertainment 09/15/06
Eric Rosen, Ronald S. Bienstock & Associates 05/25/01
Stuart Ross, The Ross Group 02/23/01
David Ross, President IAAM; Director, Show Me Center 09/23/05
Jack Ross, APA Canada 09/07/17
Bobby Rossi, Ruth Eckerd Hall 02/28/03
Michael Rothschild, Landslide Records 04/29/05
Robert Rowland, Red Entertainment 06/13/08
Bill Royston, Mt. Hood Jazz Festival 03/07/03
John Rudolph, Bug Music 05/24/10
Elizabeth Rush, E.R.A. / Elizabeth Rush Agency 08/20/04
Aran Rush, Expo and Foro Imperial 02/16/07
Maurice Russell, Harry Fox Agency 10/21/05
Barron Ruth, Skyline Music 02/14/03
Andrea Sabata, Skyline Music 01/07/05
Numa Saisselin, Count Basie Theatre, Inc. 02/04/05
Ron Sakamoto, Gold & Gold Productions 01/16/10
David Salidor, dis Company 07/20/07
Shaw Saltzberg, S. L. Feldman and Associates 06/21/10
Bruce Allen & Sam Feldman, A&F Music 12/19/08
Mark Samuels, Basin Street Records 06/11/04
Jacqueline Saturn, Harvest Records 01/21/15
Tamara Saviano, American Roots Publishing 07/22/05
Tamara Saviano, Author, journalist, and producer 08/18/16
Michael Scafuto, Mountain High Entertainment 12/07/01
Steve Schankman, Contemporary Productions 12/21/01
Steve Scharf, Carlin America 10/11/02
John Scher, Metropolitan Talent 11/21/08
Al Schmitt, Producer/Engineer 02/13/10
Bobby Schneider, Tour Coordinator, Third Eye Blind 01/31/03
Jake Schneider, Madison House 04/02/14
Steven Schnur, EA Music Group 07/03/13
Elaine Schock, Shock Ink 02/19/10
Stacy Schott, Mad Booking and Events 08/22/03
Daylle Schwartz, Revenge Productions 08/19/05
Dean Sciarra, 11/26/04
Joel Selvin, Author and Journalist 08/07/14
Jay Sendyk, Sendyk, Leonard & Company, Inc. 05/03/02
Jonathan Shank, Red Light Management 12/13/17
Peter Shapiro, Ideal Entertainment 04/16/04
Peter Shapiro, Dayglo Ventures/Brooklyn Bowl 11/15/17
Seth Sheck, Access Pass & Design 01/03/03
Seth Sheck, ACCESS Event Solutions 06/22/16
Seth Shomes, The Agency Group 11/12/14
Jay Sieleman, The Blues Foundation 07/18/03
Anya Siglin, The Ark 03/05/10
Bill Silva, Bill Silva Entertainment 10/19/10
Tom Silverman, Tommy Boy Entertainment 03/06/12
Steve Simon, Clear Channel Communications 05/14/04
Ralph Simon, Live Earth 07/06/07
Ralph Simon, Mobilium 04/12/11
Michael Simon, The Harry Fox Agency 08/14/13
Ron Simpson, RCS Productions 01/11/08
John Simson, SoundExchange 07/15/05
Dion Singer, Warner Bros. 12/07/09
Gram Slaton, The Community Arts Center 02/25/05
Owen Sloane, Gladstone Michel Weisberg Willner & Sloane 10/11/10
Peter Smidt, Eurosonic Noorderslag & manager Buma Cultuur 07/17/13
Garrison Snell, Gyrosity Projects 02/23/17
Mike Snider, Paradigm Talent Agency Nashville 05/17/11
Andrew Snowhite, Musictoday 05/04/01
Bruce Solar, The Agency Group 05/14/14
Nikki Solgot, Circle Talent Agency 02/18/15
Michael Solomon, Brick Wall Management 05/25/07
Mark Sonder, Mark Sonder Productions 07/25/08
Steve Sonnier, UIC Pavilion at the University of Illinois, Chicago 09/03/04
Kathy Spanberger, peermusic 06/20/12
Carolyn Specht, CIE USA Entertainment Inc. and OCESA PRESENTS Inc. 03/26/04
David Spelman, New York Guitar Festival 10/01/04
Jason Spiewak, Rock Ridge Music 04/07/06
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 11/29/12
Dan Steinberg, Square Peg Concerts 02/18/05
Jeremy Stephan, Ventures, LLC 04/23/04
Walter Stewart, Mars Talent Agency 02/21/03
Gail Stocker, Gail Stocker Presents 11/12/04
Jon Stoll, Fantasma Productions 10/13/00
Jesse Stoll, AEG 06/27/09
Henry Stone, Henry Stone Music 06/24/05
Jason Stone, Live Nation New York 03/31/06
Howard Stovall, Resource Entertainment Group 05/28/04
Cameron Strang, New West Records 10/18/02
Don Strasburg, AEG Live Rocky Mountains 02/27/09
Barbara Strauss, Sovereign Ventures 05/12/06
Richard Stumpf, Cherry Lane Publishing 08/07/06
Deb Suckling, SUGARRUSH Music 07/27/17
Patrick Sullivan, RightsFlow 10/25/11
Bernie Swain & Harry Rhodes, Jr., Washington Speakers Bureau 12/07/00
Dean Swett, Paramour Group 06/14/02
Jake Szufnarowski, Rocks Off 05/02/08
Marc Tanner, Chime Entertainment 12/22/06
Donald Tarlton, The Donald K Donald Group 04/12/02
Tess Taylor, Los Angeles Music Network 08/09/02
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Race Taylor, WPLJ - New York 10/27/06
Chris Taylor, Taylor 03/15/09
Peter Tempkins, DeWitt Stern Group 03/16/01
Peter Tempkins, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 03/27/09
Lisa Tenner, Tenner & Associates (EAT'M) 08/06/01
Jeremy Tepper, Diesel Only Records 10/10/03
Allan Tepper, Bicycle Music Company 09/28/07
Martin Terefe, Kensaltown Studios 05/31/11
Milun Tesovic, MetroLeap Media 10/18/09
Mandar Thakur, Times Music 08/06/15
Jerry Thompson, Promoter Line Inc. 03/05/04
Jose Tillan, MTV Networks Latin America 12/02/05
Jon Tiven, Hormone Studios 08/05/05
Adam Tobey, Concert Ideas 08/24/17
Rob Tonkin, Marketing Factory 12/17/15
John "J.T." Toomey, 25/8 Management 11/15/11
Livia Tortella, Warner Bros. Records 01/10/12
Phil Tripp, IMMEDIA! 01/19/06
Claudio Trotta, Barley Arts Promotion 11/26/01
Chris Tsakalakis, StubHub 01/11/10
Ben Turner, Graphite Media 05/10/10
Steve Vai, Favored Nations Entertainment 04/26/02
John Valentino, Fantasma Productions 04/18/03
John Valentino, AEG Live SE 11/01/10
Don Van Cleave, Coalition of Independent Music Stores 04/09/04
Casey Verbeck, Partners in Music 06/06/03
David "Boche" Viecelli, The Billions Corporation 04/18/10
Marsha Vlasic, Artist Group International 05/31/17
Mat Vlasic, Bravado 06/28/17
Ray Waddell, Billboard Magazine 08/27/04
Rob Waggener, Foundations Recovery Network 03/07/11
Jim Walczak, Racine Civic Centre 06/03/05
Jeff Walker, The AristoMedia Group 08/16/10
Carla Wallace, Big Yellow Dog Music 11/04/05
Russell Wallach, Live Nation Network 03/20/12
Steve Walter, The Cutting Room 10/24/08
Neil Warnock, The Agency Group 05/02/09
Diane Warren, Realsongs 08/14/09
Butch Waugh, RCA Label Group Nashville 01/10/03
Lauren Wayne, The State Theatre 05/09/12
Kirt Webster, Webster PR 02/03/16
Ken Weinstein, Big Hassle Media 04/22/05
Bruce Weinstein, Bethel Woods Center for the Arts 02/15/08
Larry Weintraub, Fanscape 05/18/01
Pam Weiser, Momentous Insurance Brokerage 10/11/11
Kevin Welk, Welk Music Group 01/24/12
D-J Wendt, Dmand Management 05/09/08
Alison Wenham, Worldwide Independent Network 02/13/09
Bill Werde, Billboard 08/03/11
Joel Whitburn, Record Research 11/13/09
Judd White, Tour Manager/Accountant 02/13/04
Jeff White, In Ticketing 12/16/06
Adam White, Author 09/14/16
Lisa White, Pearl Street Warehouse 10/04/17
Adam Wilkes, AEG Live Asia 10/13/16
Fenton Williams, 04/04/08
Del Williams, Right Arm Entertainment 04/18/08
Bryan "Birdman" Williams, Cash Money Records 09/13/11
Paul Williams, ASCAP 10/19/11
J.P. Williams, Parallel Entertainment 10/03/12
Kurt Willms, Green Room Productions 09/20/03
Chris Wilson, Heartbeat Records 03/02/07
Tony Wilson, Factory Records/In The City 06/01/07
Tom Windish, The Windish Agency 07/26/10
John Wiseman, XL Touring Video 05/05/06
Thom Wolke, 02/08/02
Michael Wood, City Lights Entertainment 08/08/08
Keith Wortman, Blackbird Presents 03/22/17
Nigel Wright, Independant Record Producer 11/07/03
Dusty Wright, 07/27/07
Jeremiah “Ice” Younossi, A-List Talent 09/20/09
Gail Zappa, The Zappa Family Trust 10/02/14
Kevin 'Chief' Zaruk, Chief Music Management 06/10/15
Ron Zeelens, RAZco Visas 04/20/01
Rick Zeiler, Sidney Frank Importing Company 06/04/04
Danny Zelisko, Live Nation 06/19/09
Jason Zink, Emporium Presents 10/19/17
Hillary Zuckerberg, Brick Wall Management. 07/09/04
Steve Zuckerman, Global Entertainment and Media Summit 03/22/02
Paul Zullo, Muze 01/23/04
Nanette Zumwalt, Hired Power 02/03/06


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